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1/19 ITApplications XML Module Session 4: Document Type Definition (DTD) Part 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1/19 ITApplications XML Module Session 4: Document Type Definition (DTD) Part 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/19 ITApplications XML Module Session 4: Document Type Definition (DTD) Part 2

2 2/19 Entities General Entities General Entities Can specify abbreviations, short-cuts or aliases Can specify abbreviations, short-cuts or aliases &defaultTitle; &defaultTitle; ¤cy;34,000,000 Example DTD ¤cy;34,000,000 Example DTD Example XML Example XML The Company Name is: &companyname; The Company Name is: &companyname;

3 3/19 Example of the output using Microsoft Internet Explorer Try it !

4 4/19 Parameter Entities Parameter Entities Short cut for repeating syntax within a DTD Short cut for repeating syntax within a DTD Example of an Employee DTD: Filename: Employee.dtd Filename: Employee.dtd Let’s now create an in-line DTD that uses the above DTD as a parameter entity.

5 5/19 MarkCollins£35,000.00MarkCollins 34, Narrow Lane, SE3 6DY, London 34, Narrow Lane, SE3 6DY, London Filename: Payroll.xml Filename: Payroll.xml

6 6/19 To link an XML document to a DTD To link an XML document to a DTD It can be embedded (as in the previous slide). It can be embedded (as in the previous slide). Or the XML document can specify the DTD location as in the example below: Or the XML document can specify the DTD location as in the example below: The location is usually a URL, local or another domain, such as the following example: The location is usually a URL, local or another domain, such as the following example: Note: You will remember using this declaration in the Internet Communications module when writing your html pages!

7 7/19 Validating a DTD A DTD is used to validate an XML document but DTDs themselves can be validated. A DTD is used to validate an XML document but DTDs themselves can be validated. You can validate a DTD by using third-party validation tools such XMLSpy. XMLSpy is an XML editor that has built-in features for validating DTDs and is widely used in the industry. You can download a free copy of XMLSpy Home Edition from the following links: You can validate a DTD by using third-party validation tools such XMLSpy. XMLSpy is an XML editor that has built-in features for validating DTDs and is widely used in the industry. You can download a free copy of XMLSpy Home Edition from the following links:

8 8/19 Validating a DTD example Let’s open the following DTD in XMLSpy: Let’s open the following DTD in XMLSpy: Filename: DTDErrorEmployeeExample.dtd Filename: DTDErrorEmployeeExample.dtd Can you spot the error?

9 9/19 Open the DTD in the previous example with XMLSpy as illustrated below: Open the DTD in the previous example with XMLSpy as illustrated below:

10 10/19 Click on the green tick button in order to validate the DTD and the following screen should appear: Click on the green tick button in order to validate the DTD and the following screen should appear: Note that XMLSpy first checks that the file is well-formed and then performs the validation check. Note that XMLSpy first checks that the file is well-formed and then performs the validation check.

11 11/19 Rectify the error in the DTD and click on the Recheck tick button and you should see the following screen: Rectify the error in the DTD and click on the Recheck tick button and you should see the following screen: You can now use your DTD in order to validate your XML file.

12 12/19 Limitations of DTD’s: Limitations of DTD’s: Weakly-typed data. Weakly-typed data. The values of the data contained in elements can be anything. Hence, the application has to validate the data. The values of the data contained in elements can be anything. Hence, the application has to validate the data. A DTD does not make clear what is the root element of the associated XML. The root element is only specified in XML document A DTD does not make clear what is the root element of the associated XML. The root element is only specified in XML document DTD’s are written in a different syntax than XML and thus can not be parsed with an XML parser. DTD’s are written in a different syntax than XML and thus can not be parsed with an XML parser. All declarations in a DTD are global which means that two elements with the same name can not be defined in different contexts. This presents integration problems when using several different third-party DTDs. All declarations in a DTD are global which means that two elements with the same name can not be defined in different contexts. This presents integration problems when using several different third-party DTDs.

13 13/19 XML Schemas an XML based alternative to DTDs Brief overview of xml schemas: XML Schemas was developed by the W3C and attempts to address the limitations of DTDs. Brief overview of xml schemas: XML Schemas was developed by the W3C and attempts to address the limitations of DTDs. XML Schemas are written in XML. XML Schemas are written in XML. You can define global and local elements. You can define global and local elements. XML Schemas have data types such as: string, integer, decimal (with precision), boolean, date, etc… XML Schemas have data types such as: string, integer, decimal (with precision), boolean, date, etc…

14 14/19 Let’s illustrate schemas by using an example that compares a DTD and an XML Schema Definition (XSD): Let’s illustrate schemas by using an example that compares a DTD and an XML Schema Definition (XSD): Sample DTD: Filename: Employee.dtd Filename: Employee.dtd Equivalent XML schema sample:

15 15/19 XML Namespaces Reasons for using namespaces: Reasons for using namespaces: Distinguish between elements and attributes from different applications with the same name. Distinguish between elements and attributes from different applications with the same name. Group all related elements and attributes from one application to recognise them easier. Group all related elements and attributes from one application to recognise them easier. Distinguish between elements and attributes from different applications with the same name. Distinguish between elements and attributes from different applications with the same name. Group all related elements and attributes from one application to recognise them easier. Group all related elements and attributes from one application to recognise them easier. One of the main feature of XML is to combine markup from various XML applications. Hence, XML Namespaces make it easier for software to understand the nature of the markup been used. One of the main feature of XML is to combine markup from various XML applications. Hence, XML Namespaces make it easier for software to understand the nature of the markup been used.

16 16/19 XML Namespace Example: XML Namespace Example:

This is content and so is this.

Filename: NamespaceExample.xml Filename: NamespaceExample.xml In the above example, the default namespace is declared in the root element and applies to the whole XML document. However, the body declares another namespace with a prefix (html) which can be used throughout the document to indicate that individual elements belong to the html namespace. Notice the presence of two paragraph elements: and.

17 17/19 Points to consider when creating a namespace: Points to consider when creating a namespace: Namespaces do not refer to an exact location. Namespaces do not refer to an exact location. Designate a unique URI that determines the scope of the markup. Designate a unique URI that determines the scope of the markup. Example: Specify a namespace reference in the parent node of the markup or root node of the XML document. Specify a namespace reference in the parent node of the markup or root node of the XML document.

18 18/19 Declare a prefix to use for relevant markup elements. Declare a prefix to use for relevant markup elements. Add the prefix to element names to ensure the distinction between elements used in different contexts. Add the prefix to element names to ensure the distinction between elements used in different contexts. Be aware that a prefix can not start with x, m, and l (xml) in that order, in upper or lowercase. Be aware that a prefix can not start with x, m, and l (xml) in that order, in upper or lowercase. The XML processor considers elements without a prefix to belong to the default namespace if there is one. The XML processor considers elements without a prefix to belong to the default namespace if there is one. You can add version information to your namespace. Example: You can add version information to your namespace. Example:

19 19/19 Some namespace URI’s are standard, and may be recognised by some browsers Example: Some namespace URI’s are standard, and may be recognised by some browsers Example: Some prefixes are used by convention Example: Some prefixes are used by convention Example: xmlns:html= " " xmlns:svg= " " xmlns:xsl= " " xmlns:xsd= " " However, prefixes can be user-defined. Hence, you can change it but make sure it is meaningful to both a human reader and an XML parser.


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