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1 Zdenek Zdrahal Knowledge Media institute The Open University 26 October 2012 From Bletchley to CORE New Challenges in Open Access

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2 Open Access Resources OA inferred knowledge Green OA papers OA research data OA research data Services Gold OA

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3 A few examples of new tasks

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4 Melvin WebberHerbert Simon Alan Turing Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning Rittel & Webber (1973) … wicked and tame problems The Structure of Ill Structured Problems H.Simon (1973) … well and ill structured problems, GPS On Computable Numbers … A.Turing (1935) … algorithms Turing machine

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5 On Computable Numbers … A.Turing (1935) … algorithms Turing machine Herbert Simon Alan Turing The Structure of Ill Structured Problems H.Simon (1973) … well and ill structured problems, GPS Melvin Webber Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning Rittel & Webber (1973) … wicked and tame problems

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6 On Computable Numbers … A.Turing (1935) … algorithms Turing machine Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning Rittel & Webber (1973) … wicked and tame problems Alan Turing Melvin WebberHerbert Simon The Structure of Ill Structured Problems H.Simon (1973) … well and ill structured problems, GPS

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7 Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning Rittel & Webber (1973) … wicked and tame problems The Structure of Ill Structured Problems H.Simon (1973) … well and ill structured problems, GPS Herbert SimonMelvin Webber Alan Turing On Computable Numbers … A.Turing (1935) … algorithms Turing machine

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8 Melvin Webber Alan Turing Herbert Simon Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning Rittel & Webber (1973) … wicked and tame problems The Structure of Ill Structured Problems H.Simon (1973) … well and ill structured problems, GPS On Computable Numbers … A.Turing (1935) … algorithms Turing machine

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9 Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning Rittel & Webber (1973) … wicked and tame problems The Structure of Ill Structured Problems H.Simon (1973) … well and ill structured problems, GPS On Computable Numbers … A.Turing (1935) … algorithms Turing machine ? Citations

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10 UNESCO Conferences for

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13 Conclusions 1 Reasoning Assumptions Paper

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14 Conclusions 1 Assumptions 2Assumptions 1 Reasoning 1 Reasoning 2 Paper 1 Paper 2

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15 Conclusions 1 1 Assumptions 1 Reasoning 1 Reasoning 2 Paper 1 Paper 2 Conclusions 2 1

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16 Brief Genesis of CORE Bletchley Park Text Eurogene The CORE Family -CORE -ServiceCORE -DiggiCORE

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17 Enigma A.Turing ColossusBombeHut 6 Story 1Story 3Story 4Story 5Story 2 object peopleplace Bletchley Park Text (2003)

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18 Measuring mutual information between two concepts. BTM-Works → Giant-Bombe I = [bit] Giant-Bombe → Hut-6 I = [bit] Hut-6 - Newmanry I = [bit] Newmanry - Colossus -MK-II I = [bit] What does it mean? BTM Works Giant Bombe Hut 6 Newmanry Colossus MK-2 Sequencing concepts and resources

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19 … available since 2005

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20 Eurogene (2005) Sharing OA educational resources in human genetics Multilingual (10 languages), automatically annotated by domain specific ontology (… controlled vocabulary) Machine translation of text Academic levels Multimedia Learning packages Available online since

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22 Basic CORE infrastructure developed, harvested 60 repositories, full text similarity ServiceCORE … 271 OAR (all 142 UK) harvested, metadata + full text, semantic similarity, deduplication, mobile apps, 9M metadata, 500k full text, API, 100M LOD triples, SPARQL, plugin, repository analytics| DiggiCORE … networks: citations of papers, citations of authors, semantic similarity of papers … infrastructure The CORE Family

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23 CORE visits (October 2012) More than 6000 visits per day … but this is just the start!

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24 OAR Challenges Standard Aggregation of OA resources Integration textual resources with OA research data Provide intelligent search for papers and research Support OA repositories Advanced Provide computer access to OA resources across repositories Enable mining and sharing of inferential knowledge from OA resources across repositories Support the development of new services that use the existing and inferential knowledge

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25 OAR Challenges Novel case studies Develop selected services based on citations networks, subject classification, author/co-author/citation networks. Develop novel methods for measuring impact of publications and authors Develop methods for measuring cross-fertilization between different domains based on the above. Develop methods for evaluating trends in scientific disciplines.

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26 Thank you!

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27 back to Melvin Webber

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29 back to Herbert Simon

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30 A. TURING "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungs Problem." This is a bizarre paper. It begins by defining a computing device absolutely unlike anything I have seen, then proceeds to show—I haven't quite followed the needlessly complicated formalism—that there are numbers that it can't compute. As I see it, there are two alternatives that apply to any machine that will ever be built: Either these numbers are too big to be represented in the machine, in which case the conclusion is obvious, or they are not; in that case, a machine that can't compute them is simply broken! Any tabulating machine worth its rent can compute all the values in the range it represents, and any number computable by a function—that is, by applying the four operations a number of times—can be computed by any modern tabulating machine since these machines—unlike the one proposed here with its bizarre mechanism——have the four operations hardwired. It seems that the "improvement" proposed by Turing is not an improvement over current technology at all, and I strongly suspect the machine is too simple to be of any use. If the article is accepted, Turing should remember that the language of this journal is English and change the title accordingly. back to Alan Turing

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