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Professor Z. GHASSEMLOOY

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1 Professor Z. GHASSEMLOOY
Free Space Optical Communications Professor Z. GHASSEMLOOY Associate Dean for Research Optical Communications Research Group, School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences The University of Northumbria Newcastle, U.K.

2 Northumbria University at Newcastle, UK
2

3 Outline Introduction to FSO FSO Results Final remarks Applications
Issues Results Simulation Experimental Final remarks 3

4 Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications

5 When Did It All Start? 800BC Fire beacons (ancient Greeks and Romans) 150BC Smoke signals (American Indians) 1791/ Semaphore (French) Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated the photophone1 – 1st FSO (THE GENESIS) (www.scienceclarified.com) 1960s Invention of laser and optical fibre 1970s FSO mainly used in secure military applications 1990s to date Increased research & commercial use due to successful trials 1Alexander Graham Bell, "On the production and reproduction of sound by light," American Journal of Sciences, Series 3, pp , Oct 5

6 The Problem? ….. BANDWIDTH when and where required.
AND THAT IS ? ….. BANDWIDTH when and where required. Over the last 20 years deployment of optical fibre cables in the backbone and metro networks have made huge bandwidth readily available to within one mile of businesses/home in most places. But, HUGE BANDWIDTH IS STILL NOT AVAILABLE TO THE END USERS. 6

7 FSO - Features No trenches No electromagnetic interference
Used in the following protocols: Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI, ATM, Optical Carriers (OC)-3, 12, 24, and 48. Complements other access network technologies No license fee Huge bandwidth similar to fibre No multipath fading – Intensity modulation and direct detection Secure transmission Quick to install; only takes few hours Requires no right of way Achievable range limited by thick fog to ~500m Over 3 km in clear atmosphere steering and tracking capabilities

8 Access Network Bottleneck
(Source: NTT) 8 8 8

9 Cellular Network Bottleneck
Microwave radio links (installed or leased) More than one BS is connected to MSN PTSN Switching centre Backhaul “last mile” Microwave link RF Core network BS MU Mobile switching node

10 Medium capacity microwave link
Cellular Network Bottleneck Medium capacity microwave link BS C High capacity microwave link BS B Hub BS Mobile switching node Optical fibre BS A

11 Hub Core BS “Regional” BACKHAUL “Last mile” MSN Iran 2008

12 Plaintree Systems Inc.

13

14 2009 MRV

15 Access Network Technology
xDSL Copper based (limited bandwidth)- Phone and data combine Availability, quality and data rate depend on proximity to service provider’s C.O. Radio link Spectrum congestion (license needed to reduce interference) Security worries (Encryption?) Lower bandwidth than optical bandwidth At higher frequency where very high data rate are possible, atmospheric attenuation(rain)/absorption(Oxygen gas) limits link to ~1km Cable Shared network resulting in quality and security issues. Low data rate during peak times FTTx Expensive Right of way required - time consuming Might contain copper still etc FSO 15 15

16 FSO - Basics Cloud Rain Smoke Gases Temperature variations Fog and aerosol PROCESSING SIGNAL PHOTO DETECTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT The transmission of optical radiation through the atmosphere obeys the Beer-Lamberts’s law: Preceive = Ptransmit * exp(-αL) POINT B α : Attenuation coefficient POINT A This equation fundamentally ties FSO to the atmospheric weather conditions Link Range L 16

17 Optical Components – Light Source
Operating Wavelength (nm) Laser type Remark ~850 VCSEL Cheap, very available, no active cooling, reliable up to ~10Gbps ~1300/~1550 Fabry-Perot/DFB Long life, compatible with EDFA, up to 40Gbps ~10,000 Quantum cascade laser (QCL) Expensive, very fast and highly sensitive For indoor applications LEDs are used. 17

18 Optical Components – Detectors
Material/Structure Wavelength (nm) Responsivity (A/W) Typical sensitivity Gain Silicon PIN 300 – 1100 0.5 155Mbps 1 InGaAs PIN 1000 – 1700 0.9 155Mbps Silicon APD 400 – 1000 77 150 InGaAs APD 9 10 Quantum –well and Quatum-dot (QWIP&QWIP) ~10,000 Germanium only detectors are generally not used in FSO because of their high dark current. 18

19 Receiver Sensitivity Vs. Detector Area
PIN APD -20 -30 -40 -50 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Sensitivity (dBm) Photodiode area (mm ) 2 (155Mbit/s) 19

20 Existing System Specifications
Range: 1-10 km (depend on the data rates) Power consumption up to 60 W 15 data rate up to 100 mbps and  =780nm, short range 25 date rate up to 150 Mbps and  = 980nm 60 data rate up to 622 Mbps and  = 780nm 40 data rate up to 1.5 Gbps and  = 780nm Transmitted power: 14 – 20 dBm Receiver: PIN (lower data rate), APD (>150 mbps) Beam width: 4-8 mRad Interface: coaxial cable, MM Fibre, SM Fibre Safety Classifications: Class 1 M (IEC) Weight: up to 10 kg 20

21 Safety Classifications - Point Source Emitter
880 1310 1550 0.5mW 2.5mW 8.8mW 45mW 10mW 50mW class 1 3A 3B 650 1.0 5.0 500 2 0.2 visible infra-red Total power in a 5cm Lens (mW) Wavelength (nm) Source:BT indoor √ with holography 21

22 Power Spectra of Ambient Light Sources
Wavelength (m) Normalised power/unit wavelength 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.5 Sun Incandescent x 10 1st window IR Fluorescent Pave)amb-light >> Pave)signal (Typically 30 dB with no optical filtering) 2nd window IR 22

23 Cost Comparison 23 Source: 23

24

25

26 FSO – System Requirement
Link specifications / data rate Response time Timeliness / latency Data throughput Reliability Availability

27 FSO – System Requirement
M. Löschnigg, P. Mandl, E. Leitgeb, 2009

28 Hybrid FSO/RF Wireless Networks
Broadcast RF networks are not scaleable RF cannot provide very high data rates RF is not physically secure High probability of detection/intercept Not badly affected by fog and snow, affected by rain A Hybrid FSO/RF Link - High availability (>99.99%) - Much higher throughput than RF alone - For greatest flexibility need unlicensed RF band

29 Video-conference for Tele-medicine CIMIC-purpose and disaster recovery
LOS - Hybrid Systems Video-conference for Tele-medicine CIMIC-purpose and disaster recovery 29

30 FSO - Applications In addition to bringing huge bandwidth to businesses /homes FSO also finds applications in : Hospitals Multi-campus university Others: Inter-satellite communication Disaster recovery Fibre communication back-up Video conferencing Links in difficult terrains Temporary links e.g. conferences Cellular communication back-haul FSO challenges… 30 30

31 FSO - Applications Ring Topology Star Topology

32 FSO - Challenges To achieve optimal link performance,
Major challenges are due to the effects of: CLOUD, RAIN, SMOKE, GASES, TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS FOG & AEROSOL PROCESSING SIGNAL PHOTO DETECTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT To achieve optimal link performance, system design involves tradeoffs of the different parameters. POINT A POINT B 32 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

33 FSO Challenges – Rain & Snow
 = 0.5 – 3 mm Snow attenuation Effects Options Remarks Photon absorption Increase transmit optical power Effect not significant A heavy rainfall of 15 cm/hour causes dB/km loss in optical power Light snow about 3 dB/km power loss Blizzard could cause over 60 dB/km power loss 33 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 33

34 FSO Challenges - Physical Obstructions Pointing Stability and Swaying Buildings
Effects Solutions Remarks Loss of signal Multipath induced Distortions Low power due to beam divergence and spreading Short term loss of signal Spatial diversity Mesh architectures: using diverse routes Ring topology: User’s n/w become nodes at least one hop away from the ring Fixed tracking (short buildings) Active tracking (tall buildings) May be used for urban areas, campus etc. Low data rate Uses feedback 34 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

35 FSO Challenges – Aerosols Gases & Smoke
Effects Solutions Remarks Mie scattering Photon absorption Rayleigh scattering These contribute to signal loss: Increase transmit power Diversity techniques Effect not severe Absorption coefficient Scattering coefficient 35 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

36 FSO Challenges - Fog  = 0.01 - 0.05 mm Effects Options Remarks
Using Mie scattering to predict fog attenuations m and r are the refractive index and radius of the fog droplets, respectively. Qext is the extinction efficiency and n(r) is the modified gamma size distribution of the fog droplets. Effects Options Remarks Mie scattering Photon absorption Increase transmit optical power Hybrid FSO/RF Thick fog limits link range to ~500m Safety requirements limit maximum optical power 36 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 36

37 Fog - Predicted specific attenuation at 10 ºC for moderate continental fog

38 FSO Challenges - Fog Weather condition Precipitation Amount (mm/hr)
Visibility dB Loss/km Typical Deployment Range (Laser link ~20dB margin) Dense fog 0 m 50 m 122 m Thick fog 200 m -59.57 490 m Moderate fog Snow 500 m -20.99 1087 m Light fog Snow Cloudburst 100 770 m 1 km 1565 m 1493 m Thin fog Snow Heavy rain 25 1.9 km 2 km 3238 m 3369 m Haze Snow Medium rain 12.5 2.8 km 4 km 4331 m 5566 m Light haze Snow Light rain 2.5 5.9 km 10 km 7146 m 9670 m Clear Snow Drizzle 0.25 18.1 km 20 km 11468 m m Very clear 23 km 50 km 12112 m m 38 (H.Willebrand & B.S. Ghuman, 2002.) 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 38

39 FSO – Fog Experimental Data
City of Nice – Jan –July 2006 Ref: E Leitgeb et al 2009 Lit City of Graze – Jan - July

40 FSO Attenuation 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

41 FSO Challenges - Others
Background radiation LOS requirement Laser safety Turbulence (scintillation) 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

42 FSO Challenges - Turbulence
Effects Options Remarks Irradiance fluctuation (scintillation) Image dancing Phase fluctuation Beam spreading Polarisation fluctuation Diversity techniques Forward error control control Robust modulation techniques Adaptive optics Coherent detection not used due to Phase Significant for long link range (>1km) Turbulence and thick fog do not occur together In IM/DD, it results in deep irradiance fades that could last up to ~1-100 μs 42 42

43 Result in deep signal fades that lasts for ~1-100 μs
FSO Challenges - Turbulence Cause: Atmospheric inhomogeneity / random temperature variation along beam path.  changes in refractive index of the channel P: Channel pressure, Te: Channel temperature The atmosphere behaves like prism of different sizes and refractive indices Phase and irradiance fluctuation Result in deep signal fades that lasts for ~ μs Zones of differing density act as lenses, scattering light away from its intended path. Thus, multipath. Depends on: Altitude/Pressure, Wind speed, Temperature and relative beam size. 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

44 Turbulence – Channel Models
Comments Log Normal Simple; tractable Weak regime only I-K Weak to strong turbulence regime K Strong regime only Rayleigh/Negative Exponential Saturation regime only Irradiance PDF: Gamma-Gamma All regimes Irradiance PDF by Andrews et al (2001): Ix: due to large scale effects; obeys Gamma distribution Iy: due to small scale effects; Kn(.): modified Bessel function of the 2nd kind of order n σl2 : Log irradiance variance (turbulence strength indicator) Based on the modulation process the received irradiance is To mitigate turbulence effect we, employ subcarrier modulation with spatial diversity 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

45 Turbulence Effect on OOK
Using optimal maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol-by-symbol detection with equiprobable OOK data: The threshold depends on the noise level and turbulence strength  OOK based FSO requires adaptive threshold to perform Optimally. 45 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 45

46 SIM – System Block Diagram
DC bias d(t) m(t) m(t)+bo . . Serial/parallel converter Subcarrier modulator Summing circuit Optical transmitter Data in Atmospheric channel ir d’(t) Parallel/serial converter Subcarrier demodulator Spatial diversity combiner Photo- detector array Data out . 46 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

47 Subcarrier Intensity Modulation
No need for adaptive threshold To reduce scintillation effects on SIM Convolutional coding with hard-decision Viterbi decoding (J. P. KIm et al 1997) Turbo code with the maximum-likelihood decoding (T. Ohtsuki, 2002) Low density parity check (for burst-error medium): - Outperform the Turbo-product codes. - LDPC coded SIM in atmospheric turbulence is reported to achieve a coding gain >20 dB compared with similarly coded OOK (I. B. Djordjevic, et al 2007) SIM with space-time block code with coherent and differential detection (H. Yamamoto, et al 2003) However, error control coding introduces huge processing delays and efficiency degradation (E. J. Lee et al, 2004) 47 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

48 SIM – Our Contributions
Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) (an array of transmitters/ photodetectors) to mitigate scintillation effect in a IM/DD FSO link overcomes temporary link blockage by birds and misalignment when combined with a wide laser beamwidth, therefore no need for an active tracking provides independent aperture averaging with multiple separate aperture system, than in a single aperture where the aperture size has to be far greater than the irradiance spatial coherence distance (few centimetres) Provides gain and bit-error performance Efficient coherent modulation techniques (BPSK etc.) - bulk of the signal processing is done in RF that suffers less from scintillation In dense fog, MIMO performance drops, therefore alternative configuration such as hybrid FSO/RF should be considered Average transmit power increases with the number of subcarriers, thus may suffers from signal clipping Inter-modulation distortion 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

49 Subcarrier Modulation - Transmitter
49 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 49

50 SIM - Receiver Photo-current
R = Responsivity, I = Average power,  = Modulation index, m(t) = Subcarrier signal 50 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 50

51 Subcarrier Modulation
Performs optimally without adaptive threshold as in OOK Use of efficient coherent modulation techniques (PSK, QAM etc.) bulk of the signal processing is done in RF where matured devices like stable, low phase noise oscillators and selective filters are readily available. System capacity/throughput can be increased Outperforms OOK in atmospheric turbulence Eliminates the use of equalisers in dispersive channels Similar schemes already in use on existing networks The average transmit power increases as the number of subcarrier increases or suffers from signal clipping. Intermodulation distortion due to multiple subcarrier impairs its performance But.. 51 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 51

52 SIM - Spatial Diversity
Single-input-multiple-output Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) 52 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

53 SIM - Spatial Diversity
Assuming identical PIN photodetector on each links, the photocurrent on each link is: ai is the scaling factor Diversity Combining Techniques Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) [Complex but optimum] Equal Gain Combining (EGC) Selection Combining (SELC). No need for phase information 53 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

54 SIM Spatial Diversity – Assumptions Made
The spacing between detectors > the transverse correlation size ρo of the laser radiation, because ρo = a few cm in atmospheric turbulence The beamwidth at the receiver end is sufficiently broad to cover the entire field of view of all N detectors. Scintillation being a random phenomenon that changes with time makes the received signal intensity time variant with coherence time o of the order of milliseconds. With the symbol duration T << o the received irradiance is time invariant over one symbol duration. 54 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

55 Subcarrier Modulation - Spatial Diversity
One detector Two detectors Three detectors A typical reduction in intensity fluctuation with spatial diversity Eric Korevaar et. al 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

56 Results and discussions Final remarks
Free Space Optics Characteristics Challenges Turbulence - Subcarrier intensity multiplexing - Diversity schemes Results and discussions Final remarks 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

57 Error Performance – No Spatial Diversity
Normalised SNR at BER of 10-6 against the number of subcarriers for various turbulence levels for BPSK Increasing the number of subcarrier/users, results In increased SNR SNR gain compared with OOK 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

58 Error Performance – No Spatial Diversity
BPSK BER against SNR for M-ary-PSK for log intensity variance = 0.52 BPSK based subcarrier modulation is the most power efficient 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 58 58

59 Spatial Diversity Gain
Spatial diversity gain with EGC against Turbulence regime 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 59

60 Spatial Diversity Gain for EGC and SeLC
Link margin for SelC is lower than EGC by ~1 to ~6 dB Dominated by received irradiance, reduced by factor N on each link. BER = 10-6 = Zeros of the nth order Hermite polynomial = Weight factor of the nth order Hermite polynomial 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

61 Spatial Diversity Gain for EGC and MRC
BER = 10-6 Most diversity gain region The optimal but complex MRC diversity is marginally superior to the practical EGC 61 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

62 Delay ≥ Channel coherence time
Temporal Diversity Retransmission on different subcarriers Other possibilities: different wavelengths different polarisations Delay ≥ Channel coherence time This process is reversed at the receiver side to recover the data

63 Temporal Diversity Gain
Single delay path is the optimum BER =10-9 No TDD 1-TDD 2-TDD 3-TDD 5-TDD Io (dBm) (no fading: ) -17.17 -19.17 -19.85 -20.13 -20.3 Fading penalty (dB) 9.88 7.88 7.2 6.92 6.75 Diversity gain (dB) (gain / path) (0) 2 (2) 2.68 (1.34) 2.96 (0.99) 3.13 (0.63)

64 Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output
By linearly combining the photocurrents using MRC, the individual SNRe on each link 64 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

65 MIMO Performance At BER of 10-6:
2 x 2-MIMO requires additional ~0.5 dB of SNR compared with 4-photodetector single transmitter-multiple photodetector system. 4 x 4-MIMO requires ~3 dB and ~0.8 dB lower SNR compared with single transmitter with 4 and 8-photodetectors , respectively. log intensity variance= 0.52 65 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

66 FSO – Turbulence Chamber
Thermometers, T4 Reflecting mirror Laser Module (Direct Modulation) Power = 3mW λ = 785nm OOK & BPSK Modulator + Demodulator Turbulence chamber PIN Detector + Amplifier Heaters + Fans Optical power meter head Reflecting mirror BPSK modulator Carrier MHz Data rate A few kHz Turbulence chamber Dimension 140 x 30 x 30 cm Temp. range 24oC – 60oC 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

67 FSO – With Scintillation Effect
Received mean signal + Noise + Scintillation Signal Distribution Gaussian fit 2.93 V Lognormal fit Observations Total fluctuation variance = (V2) Weak scintillation obeys Lognormal distribution (variance < 1) Simulated turbulence is very weak. 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

68 FSO – OOK With Scintillation Effect
No scintillation Received Signal Threshold position. ith Received Transmitted With scintillation Received Signal ≈ 400mV p-p Threshold range Observation: The optimum symbol decision position in OOK depends on scintillation level 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

69 FSO – BPSK-SIM With Scintillation Effect
Received Signal No scintillation Demodulated No low Pass filtering Before demodulation Demodulated Signal ≈ 400mV p-p With scintillation Observation: Scintillation does not affect the symbol decision position in BPSK -SIM 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

70 FSO Network – Linking Two Universities in Newcastle
Agilent Photonic Research Lab Optical nm Specifications: 4x4 Du-plex communication link (The FlightStrata 155E) 650 nm wavelength Si APD Data rate: 155 Mbps Maximum length: 3.5 km Automatic Power Control and Auto Tracking 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

71 Collaborators Graz Technical University, Austria
Houston University, USA UCL Hong-Kong Polytechnic University Tarbiat Modares University, Iran Newcastle University Ankara University, Turkey Agilent Cable Free Technological University of Malaysia Others 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

72 Summary Access bottleneck has been discussed
FSO introduced as a complementary technology Atmospheric challenges of FSO highlighted Subcarrier intensity modulated FSO (with and without spatial diversity) discussed Wavelet ANN based receivers 72 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009 72

73 Acknowledgements To many colleagues (national and international) and in particular to all my MSc and PhD students (past and present) and post-doctoral research fellows 3rd ECAI – Romania, 3-5 July 2009

74 Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating
LS Series Specifications Model WBLS10 WBLS100 WBLS100U Ultra-Wide Data Rate 10Mbps Full Duplex Distance (meters) up to 800m up to 500m custom Network Protocol Ethernet Fast Ethernet Network Interface 10Base-T (RJ45) x1 100Base-Tx (RJ45) x1 Transmitter IR - LED Class 1 IR -LED Class 1 Wavelength nm Beam width 17mrad Power POE or 48V DC Housing Weatherproof Operating Temp. -40° C to 70° C Relative Humidity 5% to 95% Dimensions 9” x 6.0” x 12” Weight 3.2Kg, 7.5lbs Mounting Options Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating Iran 2008

75 Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating
Model WBLS T1/E1 WBLS 4T1/4E1 Data Rate 4 x 1.54 Mbps or 4 x Mbps 1 x 1.54 Mbps or 1 x Mbps Distance (meters) Up to 800m up to 1600m Network Protocol ATM Network Interface 4 x RJ48C 1 x RJ48C Transmitter IR - LED Class 1 Wavelength nm Beam width 17mrad Power 48V DC Housing Weatherproof Operating Temp. -40° C to 70° C Relative Humidity 5% to 95% Dimensions 9” x 6.0” x 12” Weight 3.2Kg, 7.5lbs Mounting Options Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating Iran 2008

76 Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating
400/500 Series Specifications Model WB410 WB4100 WB4155 WB510 Data Rate 10Mbps Full Duplex 100Mbps Full Duplex 155Mbps Full Duplex Distance (meters) 1500m 750m 2000m Network Protocol Ethernet Fast Ethernet Clear Channel Network Interface 10Base-T (RJ45) x1 100Base-Tx (RJ45) x1 SPF- LC Fiber Connect Transmitter IR - LED Class 1 IR -LED Class 1 Wavelength nm Beam width 17mrad custom Power POE or 48V DC 48V DC Housing Weatherproof Operating Temp. -40° C to 70° C Relative Humidity 5% to 95% Dimensions 15.8" x15.3" x 19" Weight 9.0Kg, 20lbs Mounting Options Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating Iran 2008

77 Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating
Model WB5100 WB5155 WB5 T1/E1 WB5 T4/E4 Data Rate 100Mbps Full Duplex 155Mbps Full Duplex 1 x 1.54 Mbps or 1 x Mbps 4 x 1.54 Mbps or 4 x Mbps Distance (meters) 1000m 3500m 2000m Network Protocol Fast Ethernet Clear Channel ATM Network Interface 100Base-Tx (RJ45) x1 SPF- LC Fiber Connect 1 x RJ48C 4 x RJ48C Transmitter IR - LED Class 1 Wavelength nm Beam width 17mrad Power POE or 48V DC 48V DC Housing Weatherproof Operating Temp. -40° C to 70° C Relative Humidity 5% to 95% Dimensions 15.8" x15.3" x 19" Weight 9.0Kg, 20lbs Mounting Options Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating Iran 2008

78 Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating
XT Series Specifications Model WBXT10 WBXT100 WBXT155 Data Rate 10Mbps Full Duplex 100Mbps Full Duplex 155Mbps Full Duplex Distance (meters) 3000m 2000m Network Protocol Ethernet Fast Ethernet Clear Channel Network Interface 10Base-T (RJ45) x1 100Base-Tx (RJ45) x1 SPF- LC Fiber Connect Transmitter IR - LED Class 1 IR -LED Class 1 Wavelength nm Beam width 17mrad custom Power POE or 48V DC 48V DC Housing Weatherproof Operating Temp. -40° C to 70° C Relative Humidity 5% to 95% Dimensions 19" x 11" x 32" Weight 15Kg, 30lbs Mounting Options Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating Iran 2008

79 Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating
Model WBXT T1/E1 WBXT T4/E4 Data Rate 1 x 1.54 Mbps or 1 x Mbps 4 x 1.54 Mbps or 4 x Mbps Distance (meters) 4000m 3000m Network Protocol ATM Network Interface 1 x RJ48C 4 x RJ48C Transmitter IR - LED Class 1 Wavelength nm Beam width 17mrad Power 48V DC Housing Weatherproof Operating Temp. -40° C to 70° C Relative Humidity 5% to 95% Dimensions 19" x 11" x 32" Weight 15Kg, 30lbs Mounting Options Wall/Tower, Roof, Non-penetrating Iran 2008


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