2 Comparison of QMU Harvard style and British Standard (BS) Harvard 2010 Main changes to note with BS Harvard 2010:Authors surname in capitalsUse ANON. for works with no author apart from: films, videos and broadcasts which are the co-operative output of many individuals, no one of whom has a dominant role as creator…title should be first element for these.Last author listed initial is followed by a comma.In journal references abbreviations are included for volume and issue number
3 Comparison of QMU Harvard style and British Standard (BS) Harvard 2010 In online references a full stop follows the format identifying phrase. [online].In online resources the phrase “Available from:” rather than “Available at:” precedes the URL/address of the resource.In online resources the term “viewed” rather than “accessed” is used for the date the resource was consulted/used, the whole phrase e.g. [viewed 8 August 2013] precedes the URL.Dates are displayed - day month year e.g. 8 August 2013
4 Book Reference Surnames now in CAPS Comma before date If there is a series it is now before the place of publication it used to be after.WILLIAMS, R., Television: technology and cultural form. London: Routledge.
5 Chapter in a book of collected writings Surnames in CAPSComma before dateAuthor/editor of collected work now appears as S. Segal-Horn not Segal-Horn, S.PORTER, M., What is strategy? In: S. SEGAL-HORN, ed. The strategy reader. Oxford: Blackwell in association with the Open University, pp
6 E-book (online book) Surnames now in CAPS Comma before date Online instead of online book [full stop after square bracket].Online now comes before edition statementViewed instead of accessedDay month year instead of month day yearAvailable from instead of available atViewed comes before URL instead of afterMANDELSTAM, M., Community care practice and the law [online]. 4th ed. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers [viewed 26 June 2013]. Available from:
7 Journal article Surnames now in CAPS Comma before date Use month/season then vol. & no. No brackets are requiredBONEN, A. and SHAW, S.M., Recreational exercise participation and aerobic fitness in men and women: analysis of data from a national survey. Journal of Sports Science. August, vol. 13, no. 4, pp
8 Ejournal (online journal) Surnames now in CAPSComma before dateUse month/season then vol. & no. No brackets are requiredFull stop after [online].Viewed instead of accessed, day month year instead of month day yearAvailable from instead of available atViewed comes before URL instead of afterCOTTER, D., MANNING, R.J., BLOW, K.J., ELLIS, A.D., KELLY, A.E. and NESSET, D., Non-linear optics for high-speed digital information processing. Science [online]. November, vol. 286, no. 5444, pp [viewed 19 October 2001]. Available from:
9 Website Surnames/organisation names now in CAPS Comma before date Full stop after [online].Viewed instead of accessed, day month year instead of month day yearAvailable from instead of available atViewed comes before URL instead of afterBBC., BBC News [online]. [viewed 12 June 2009]. Available from:
10 Contribution to a newspaper Surnames now in CAPSComma after author initialDate is day month not month day.RODNEY, Z., Edinburgh leads the way in festival management. The Guardian. 19 November, p. 5.
11 Online newspaper Surnames now in CAPS Comma before date Full stop after [online].Place of publication only, London not London ed.Day/Month not month /dayViewed instead of accessed, day month year instead of month day yearAvailable from instead of available atViewed comes before URL instead of afterHAWKES, N., NHS ‘abandons’ many dementia patients and their families. The Times [online]. London, 24 January, p.22 [viewed 20 June 2008]. Available from:
12 Conference proceedings Surnames now in CAPS, if editor use ed. after initial, no brackets round ed.Comma after author/editor initialSHAKYA, G., ed JISC Conference on Learning Online. Liverpool University, 6-9 August London: Open University.
13 Published conference papers Surname of paper author now in CAPS, if editor write ed. after initial, no brackets round ed.Comma after author/editor initialAuthor/editor of Proceedings is NOT invertedDo not enter location or date of conference.HUXHAM, M., Learning in lectures: do ‘interactive windows’ help? In: G. SHAKYA, ed. JISC Conference on Learning Online. London: Open University, pp
14 Presentation/lecture Surnames now in CAPSComma after author initialFull stop after type of presentationDate is day month not month dayLocation is followed by date, previously date was followed by location.ROLAND, J. and ROBSON, J., The lost art of sensitive criticism [seminar]. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University, 1 April.
15 Online presentation/lecture Surnames now in CAPSComma after author initialFull stop after type of presentation, which is now all included in one set of square brackets.Viewed instead of accessed, day month year instead of month day yearDate of lecture is day month not month dayAvailable from instead of available at. Viewed comes before URL instead of afterROLAND, J. and ROBSON, J., The Edinburgh Lectures. The health and psyche of the Scottish nation [online lecture]. Edinburgh: The Royal Society of Edinburgh, 21 January. [viewed 3 June 2005]. Available from:
16 Thesis/dissertations Other than those already noted the major change is that the title of award is followed by ed.KELLY, T., The Irish-Catholic immigrant, PhD thesis ed. Harvard University
17 Government reports and acts of parliament No changes other than those already noted.
18 Images If no author/creator available use ANON. No changes other than those already noted.ANON., Edinburgh Tenements 1895 [postcard]. Edinburgh: Heritage Images.
19 Physical objects Use At: instead of held at: No changes other than those already noted.RODIN, A., Age of Bronze [bronze sculpture]. At: Alte Nationalgalerie: Berlin.
20 BroadcastsYear of production comes after creator (was previously after title.All other changes as previously noted.BARENBOIM, D., Reith lectures: in the beginning was sound. London: BBC Radio 4, 7 April – 5 May.
21 DVDs, videos films etc.Creator/director is listed first, name is inverted.Medium/format now comes after the title, full stop after square brackets.All other changes as already noted.KELLY, R., Donnie Darko [DVD]. New York: Pandora.TRONICKE, E., Still face experiment [online video]. [viewed 4 March 2013]. Available from:
22 Online communications Use In: to denote the discussion listDate day/month now after medium [online].All other changes as previously noted.DAHAL, R. M., Assistive technology conference - balancing the equation. In: Lis-link [online]. 4 April [viewed 27 July 2005]. Available from:
23 Closed discussion lists As for online communication with addition of Closed discussion list at the end of reference.SMITH, R. M., Learning technology in today’s world. In: WebCT Online discussion [online]. 4 April [viewed 27 July 2006]. Available from: Closed discussion list.
24 Blogposts[online]. comes before title of blogDay/month of blog post now comes after blog title.All other changes as previously noted.STEVENS, J., Yahoo is winning in the portal wars [online]. GUtechnologyblog. 21 June [viewed 25 June 2007]. Available from:
25 Tweets This is a new element in write and cite @speechwoman, [twitter post]. 13 January [viewed 18 February 2013]. Available from:
26 email No email address for sender of email Medium [ ]. is now in square brackets after subject.Phrase – Message to: comes after medium [ ].Day/month comes at the end of the reference.All other changes as previously noted.CORMIE, V., Make poverty history [ ]. Message to: Tony Blair 2 July.
27 In text citationThis remains the same as before, please note the authors surname does not need to be in capitals in the in-text citation.(Auer and Krupar 2005)AUER, N.J. and KRUPAR, E.M., Librarians grading: giving A's, B's, C's, D's, and F's . Reference Librarian, vol. 43, 39-61, no , pp
28 Thank you!If you have any queries, please contact myself, your Liaison Librarian or the Effective Learning Service. Sheila Williams