Presentation on theme: "LG 524 ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE CODING 1. Qualitative Analysis 1. Data Reduction. This refers to the process of selecting, focussing, simplifying, abstracting."— Presentation transcript:
Qualitative Analysis 1. Data Reduction. This refers to the process of selecting, focussing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data that appear in written-up field notes or transcriptions, or qualitative questionnaires, observations, diaries, or interviews.
Data Display. A display is an organised, compressed assembly of information that permits the drawing of conclusions as deciding on a course of action. Miles and Huberman (1994) recommend different kinds of matrices, graphs, charts and networks to guide this kind of activity.
Conclusion 3. Conclusion Drawing and Verification. From the start of the data collection, the qualitative analyst is beginning to decide what things mean, is noting regularities, patterns, possible configurations, causal relationships and propositions The successful researcher maintains an attitude of openness and even scepticism, gradually reducing vagueness until conclusions are made more explicit as the evidence sustains them.
Coding CODING. Coding is a process of analysis in which volumes of data generated in the form of answers to open ended questions, transcriptions of interviews and observations, even visual data, such a photographs is broken down into an identifiable typology of named segments or categories.
Early Analysis Analysis should begin EARLY. Code emerging data AS IT IS COLLECTED is far better than waiting until data collection period is over. Codes are created as we study the data.
Asking Questions Posing questions helps to gain a new perspective on data and may provide a focus for further data collection. For example, early on in my data collection for how teachers use teachers guide, one of the respondents commented that she had never been given any training in how to use teachers guides s part of her Dip in TEFL….
Wake Up……. When Coding: STAY AWAKE..PAY ATTENTION!!! If you feel yourself getting tired or blocked, or find yourself looking for codes, i.e. having a code in your mind and trying to apply it, STOP…don’t come to the data with a code in your mind…come with an empty mind and see what is there.
Thinking about Coding Don’t force data into codes if they don’t quite fit. Coding should keep us thinking about what meaning we make of our data, asking questions, pinpointing gaps, generating codes facilitates making comparisons and looking for common themes or patterns. So coding can be seen as grouping data into categories, of similar statements or ideas, something we have discovered. Coding categories should reflect data.
Coding Stages Coding proceeds in stages, there may be several stages, 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd … 1st stage or main code may be suggested by initial interviews/questionnaire/observ ation..You can take a word or phrase out of the original transcript and use it to form a new document
Naming Your Codes Each code category is recorded, with an easily identifiable name or abbreviation. In my present research into 15 th century literature I have now about 220 initial, main codes, each one has to be easily retrievable, so I have to be able to identify them quickly. So, ‘ FW..NARR.PRON’ Refers to the poem entitled The Fox and The Wolf, and has first level categories concerning the narrators use of pronouns
MECHANICS OF CODING. Coding for themes, concepts, ideas. You can also code for periods, dates, stages or steps in a process, anything that may be useful in tying the ideas together. The coding process breaks and fragments interviews or other data into separate categories of themes, concepts, events, stages.
Some References Miles, M. & Huberman, M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis Sage, London. Silverman, D. 2005. Doing Qualitative Research. Sage, London. Silverman, D. 2006. Interpreting Qualitative Data. Sage, London Silverman, D. 2007. A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about qualitative research. Sage, London. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research:techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage, London. Burns, A. 2010. Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching. Routledge. >>>>Miles and Huberman (1994) has a very good chapter on coding, and analyzing data visually. <<<<<