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Sociolinguistic Survey 2006 O · Collected information on use of Basque in different sectors. Eg, at home with friends and family, work and in formal public.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociolinguistic Survey 2006 O · Collected information on use of Basque in different sectors. Eg, at home with friends and family, work and in formal public."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociolinguistic Survey 2006 O · Collected information on use of Basque in different sectors. Eg, at home with friends and family, work and in formal public settings and the private sector. O · Only 12.5% of the population aged 16 and above use Basque more than castillian. O · 70.4% of the population of the basque country speak only Castillian.

2 O · In % were using Basque (as much as Castillian 5,3% and more than castillian 10,0%) O · 2001 when it was discovered that 17.2% were using Basque as much as Castillian 7.1% and more than Castillian 10.1% O · Number of people just using Castillian descreased O · Although Castillian remains the dominant language 77,7% in 1991, 73,6% in 2001, and 70,4% in 2006.

3 Age and Usage O · The largest percentage of the population who use Basque as much as Castillian (10%) or more than Castillian (13.5%) = Young people aged 16-24, (23.5%) followed by people 65+ (20.7%) O · Evolution during last 15 years- number of people aged 65+ speaking Basque = decreased. Comparison to 1991.

4 Use of Basque in Formal Environment O · 18% of people use Basque primarily in Municipal services O · 17% population use Basque in settings such as a bank O · 12% mainly use Basque in the public health sector. O · In State Administration (eg, social security) Basque tends to be used less

5 Use of Basque in the Home O · 14% population always/mostly use Basque at home. O · 45% of bilingual people always/mostly use Basque in the home O · When all members of household speak Basque, 76% of population use Basque. O · However does depends on region/area

6 O · “La quinta medición de la utilización del euskara en las conversaciones en Euskal Herria constata y reafirma la tendencia que se apreció cinco años antes, en el estudio realizado en 2001: el uso de la lengua nacional aumenta, pero cada vez menos”. O · Increase in use of Basque has been less than expected or desired. O · There are large differences from area to area in the usage of the Basque.

7 Basque and Language Planning O España: Comunidades Autonomas O Constitución española (1978). Artículo El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. Todos los españoles tienen el deber de conocerla y el derecho de usarla. 2. Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas, de acuerdo con sus Estatutos. 3. La riqueza de las distintas modalidades lingüísticas de España es un patrimonio cultural que será objeto de especial respecto y protección.

8 O Estatuto de Autonomía (1979). Artículo 6º. “El Euskera, lengua propia del Pueblo Vasco, tendrá como el castellano, carácter de lengua oficial en Euskadi, todos sus habitantes tienen el derecho a conocer y usar ambas lenguas”. “Las instituciones comunes de la Comunidad Autónoma, teniendo en cuenta la diversidad socio-lingüística del País Vasco, garantizarán el uso de ambas lenguas, regulando su carácter oficial y arbitrarán y regularán las medidas y medios necesarios para asegurar su conocimiento ”. “Nadie podrá ser discriminado por razón de la lengua”. “La Academia de la Lengua Vasca – Euskaltzaindia es institución consultiva oficial en lo que respecta al Euskera”.

9 O Ley Básica de Normalización de Uso del Euskera (1982): Aim: To stop the decline of Basque usage Proposed Action: To make Euskara present by way of the; - Education system - Public Administration - Mass Media

10 Education System O Modelo A: Castellano is the vehicle language, Euskara is a separate subject. (8.1%) O Modelo B: Half and Half. (30.5%) O Modelo D: Euskara is the vehicle language and Catellano is a separate subject. (61.4%) O It is the choice of the family as to which model they would like their children to follow. O Basque education is available to adults O (Statistics from 2004) O Children who started their education outside of the Basque Country, or who are not permanent residents, are exempt.

11 Education System

12 Adult Education - AEK ( Alfabetatze Euskalduntze Koordinadora ) Coordinadora de Alfabetización y Euskaldunización - HABE ( Helduen Alfabetatze Berreuskalduntzerako Erakunde ) Organismo para la Alfabetización y Re- euskaldunización de Adultos

13 Public Administration O Right to communicate with the Administration either orally or written in either of the official languages O When more than one individual is involved, the language chosen will be the result of a mutual agreement O All administrative decisions must be written bilingually, unless a private party states otherwise O Local administration may be carried out in Euskara, as long as there are no citizens whose rights are jeopardised

14 Public Administration O Each citizen can use their language of choice in a court of law O The Government will promote the use of Euskara in the Judiciary O Place names/signs = decision of the local governments and historical territories O Traffic signs = bilingual and respecting international norms O Public Transport = bilingual O Political Propaganda = bilingual

15 Mass Media O Bilingual, Euskara will be supported by the government O Government will drive linguistic normalisation in the RTVE broadcast centres to satisfy an appropriate presence of Basque in the media O Promotion of Basque in the radio, press and publications, cinema, theatre… O Encouragement of Basque in advertising

16 O The constitution immediately reduces the value of Basque. El deber vs el derecho O Language isn’t used as a political tool for nationalism O Importance on the right to express oneself in either one of the languages, without discrimination. O Emphasis on BILINGUALISM. Basque isn’t forced on anyone

17 Standardisation and Normalisation O - standardisation and normalisation: attempts to revive the Basque language O - euskara batua was developed by the Basque Language Academy during the 1960s O - Normalisation Law of the Basque Language 1982 O - language planning became the instrument to be used in linguistic normalisation O - success of language revival can be measured in three ways: O Functional spread O Demographic spread O Geographic spread

18 What Needs to Be Done? O - Basque language also lacks a harmonised linguistic policy for all Basque-speaking territories O - a long way to go before Basque is a completely standardised language. O - Basque needs to be more integrated, especially in terms of education. O - communication: informative pluralism.

19 O - the number of bilingual people living is Basque- speaking areas has continually increased over the last couple of decades, with 137,300 more bilingual people than in O - within the Basque Autonomous Community, this increase has been in the under 50s category, and within Navarra, the increase is in the under 35s. O - in the French Basque Country, the biggest proportion of bilingual people is in the over 65s. O - "La revitalización de una lengua utilizada por una minoría no es algo que se pueda lograr de la noche a la mañana" (prólogo de la Encuesta Sociolingüística de 2006)


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