Presentation on theme: "Grammar ‘ 了 ’ le Chinese --L Cheng. Verb 了 1.perfective aspect 了, or completed action 了 2.It marks the completeness of an action; 3.Position : after verb."— Presentation transcript:
Verb 了 1.perfective aspect 了, or completed action 了 2.It marks the completeness of an action; 3.Position : after verb 4.Verb + le
Verb 了 昨天 我买 了 两个 馒头。 Yesterday I bought LE two steamed buns Zuótiān wǒ mǎi le liǎng gè mántou. Yesterday I bought two steamed buns.
With quantities 1.to mark quantified verbs 2.the object is a specific quantity or duration 3.for verbs and numbers occurring together
With quantities 我 吃 了 三 块 蛋糕。 I eat Le three MW cake Wǒ chī le sān kuài dàngāo. I ate three pieces of cake.
Sentence 了 1.modal 了 and change of state 了 2.appears at the end of the sentence 3. indicates that a new situation exists; the state of things has changed. 4. In English, ‘now’ or ‘any more’
Sentence 了 天气 冷 了。 Weather cold Le Tiānqì lěng le. The weather is now cold
Verb 了 and sentence 了 together 1.it describes what has been completed up till now. 2.‘at this point, it’s now the case that x has been done”. ‘so far’ or ‘up till now’.
Verb 了 and sentence 了 together 你 已经 喝 了 十一瓶啤酒了！ You already drink Le 11 MW beer Le Nǐ yijing hē le shíyī píng píjiǔ le! You’ve had eleven bottles of beer!
Li ǎ o 了 了 is pronounced li ǎ o rather than le. 1. literally means ‘finish’, ‘complete’ or ‘achieve’. Li ǎ o 了 is a verbal complement. 2. It indicates the success or failure of an action, appearing with 得 (positive) or 不 (negative).
Li ǎ o 了 你来得了吗？ N ǐ lái dé li ǎ o ma? Can you make it? 我看不了啊！ W ǒ kàn bù li ǎ o ā! I can’t see!
Li ǎ o 了 And, just to really confuse you, here’s a sentence with sentence 了 and li ǎ o 了 together: 苹果买不了了！ Pínggu ǒ m ǎ i bùli ǎ o le! You can’t buy apples any more! I.e. Apples have sold-out!
Summary Verb 了 Is about action. Marks completeness, or perfective aspect. Occurs right after the verb. Sentence 了 Is about state. Marks a change in state or a new situation. Indicates the relevance of this information to the present. Occurs at the end of the sentence.
Summary Verb 了 and sentence 了 together Marks what has been done up to now. Indicates that this is the current situation, and the action is on- going.