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Standards Wars: Next Generation Mobile Telephony.

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Presentation on theme: "Standards Wars: Next Generation Mobile Telephony."— Presentation transcript:

1 Standards Wars: Next Generation Mobile Telephony

2 Theory and Practice Standards essential to network industries Standards can be –Unilateral: Microsoft Windows/Sony Betamax –consortium-led: Java/Linux/VHS –government-defined: ITU ATM/BSB ’squarial’ Globalisation drives common standards internationally Mobile phones classic case study

3 Wireless broadband Satellite Broadband Fixed Wireless: –Tele2; Telewest; NTL; PipingHot Networks WAN: 3G Mobile Telephony –64Kb/s LAN: Wireless Ethernet –11Mb/s NOW; 22Mb/s 2002;72Mb/s 2003 Personal Area Networks (PANs) –Bluetooth standard/wireless headsets –Talking fridges/security alarms/wireless homes

4 Four generations of wireless 1G: early analogue ‘bricks’ –1980s ‘yuppie’ sales tool 2G: dual band handsets, SMS-enabled –GSM handsets – Nokia/Ericsson 3G: universal standard? –‘always-on’, ‘broadband’ packet-switched 4G: broadband to challenge wires –72Mb/s wireless Ethernet –Laptop/Personal Digital Assistant suited

5 Wide Area Networks (WANs): Laws of physics 1.Spectrum 2.Power 3.Reception 4.Processing

6 Spectrum: How wireless works Each generation has new standards/handsets Mobile: new spectrum for each generation 1G: 450KHz 2G: 900/1800KHz 3G: 2200KHz 4G: 5700KHz (5.7MHz) Higher frequencies –have shorter ranges –require higher powered devices

7 Power Battery life drained by: –complex reception devices Dual-triple band –multiple programs Running software programs SMS; WAP; ringtones –memory requirements Flash memory Hard disks Progress: –From simple ‘bricks’ to FOMA 3G 16-bit colour video phones

8 Reception Security and roaming require ‘clever’ devices 1G handsets resulted in ‘Squidgygate’ –Analogue easily ‘wiretapped’ European law requires intelligent networks: –caller ID and logging usage This is NOT Internet: –intelligent devices and dumb networks illegal Solutions based on ATM not TCP/IP

9 Processing Mobile terminals moving from dumb to smart: laptops and PDAs ‘Crunching’ data in digital radio packets Needs high powered processing Moore’s Law permits this –doubling microprocessor power every 18 months

10 Public wireless solutions From ‘one size fits all’ national network To individually tailored packages Global roaming solutions 4G may not follow 3G –RIM Blackberry is GPRS email device –4G ‘WiFi’ installed in millions of laptops –Data more global than phone standards

11 Wireless Devices: The Future

12 1G Standards National analogue solutions National champion equipment vendors Selling to monopoly or duopoly network Sole notable multinational solution: Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) Which became: Global System for Mobile GSM

13 2G: Dual Band/Dual Standard 900/1800KHz –Digital standard: more security/quality –SMS texting/ringtone download Europe has single standard: –GSM900/1800 –Supported by Commission –Driven by Ericsson and Nokia ousting Euro- heavyweights Siemens/Alcatel/Philips US has multiple standards: –CDMA/TDMA/GSM –1900KHz band

14 3G: IMT-2000 CDMA standard US-Euro compromise –Accepted by ITU – UN telecoms body –CDMA accepted –Qualcomm-Ericsson patent swap –Brokered by USTR/Commission Scramble to convince other markets: –Most of Asia GSM 2G –Most of Americas TDMA/CDMA 2G China/Korea/Japan own standards –Japan far ahead in technology and market –Korea using simple CDMA technology

15 Deploying 3G 3G rolled out in UK and Italy Need more base stations –Shorter range and higher bandwidth –Vodafone has announced 64Kb/s maximum –ITU definition is 144Kb/s (ISDN 128Kb/s) Handsets melt –High colour/high power/high cost/high faults Hybrid 2.5G networks effective –GPRS at 28Kb/s –On existing base stations

16 So 3G has difficulties Costs: –Spectrum in Europe –Transition in Asia –Standards in US –Handsets everywhere Benefits: –This is not wireless broadband –Bit rate too low for video/extranet –Will your fridge talk to the store?

17 4G:Business-Ready Broadband Difference between Local Area Networks (LANs) and WANs is: –Base stations –Bandwidth –Regulation –Standards

18 Base stations: –Need more for broadband –Can costs be kept low? Bandwidth & Regulation: –What does it cost? Nothing –How can it be used? With great caution Standards: –Use of TCP-IP –Intelligent devices ‘hop’ between frequencies –Global standards set by IEEE in US –Pushed by Microsoft-Intel-Cisco-Compaq

19 Standards Spectrum Power Reception Processing

20 Spectrum Global free spectrum for private use: Assumption: usage discrete, localised WLANs now public, outdoor, networked Roaming, nomadic use increasing –Airport ‘hotspots’, coffee bar broadband –Industrial Scientific Medical bands used by microwave ovens, emergency services 2.4GHz current ‘WiFi’ commercial use –Except in UK: [1] ‘pollution’ [2] equity for 3G 5.7GHz consultation: better WLAN

21 Power Base stations for WiFi are cheap: £50 Range c.150m, line of sight best Directional attenae up to 10km Best for ‘hotspotting’: bursts of data –Rabbit phone in Hong Kong; PCS in Japan Devices need to be dual-standard –GPRS/WiFi for instance Corporate extranet/audio/video applications Japan: FOMA videophone limited battery life

22 Reception How to retrofit WLAN into telco networks? Security, data transfer, roaming Current standard inadequate European 4G standard HIPERLan2 US ‘WiFi5’ now converging on Europe Microsoft leading 802.1x security Data compatible – voice applications?

23 Processing All corporate laptops are Windows-enabled NOW all WiFi-enabled as well MAC layer processor-heavy IS this a PDA and laptop device? Multiple-standard chips being developed –WiFi, WiFi5, 802.11g –2.4, 5.7GHz –Euro and US frequencies –Add GSM/GPRS/CDMA mobile reception –And US, European, Japanese 3G standards…

24 Who wins? Global standards driven by cartels Intel in microprocessors Microsoft in operating systems Cisco in routers and switchers Far bigger players than Nokia-Ericsson Data market bigger than voice Totally new challenge for Commission officials

25 Winners Microsoft: –security layer built into WindowsXP Intel/Cisco/3Com: –WiFi chipsets, complements PC/PDA/IP Data-ready mobile networks –Lobbying for 3G revenues: Vodafone, Orange Multimedia application developers –video/audio/graphic-rich environment Corporate networks –mobile employees in sales, logistics

26 Relative Losers Voice-dependent networks Japanese videophone European manufacturers – Ericsson Bluetooth as LAN – now PAN European lead in mobile ETSI-BRAN and ITU as standard- setters

27 Standards Conclusions Might is right –Wintel beats Nordics The paranoid survive –IP over ATM Corporates lead governments –IEEE not ETSI/ITU World is going wireless –Data standards for multinationals

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