Presentation on theme: "Interacting with Context-aware Personal Mobile Devices Keith Cheverst Distributed Multimedia Research Group Lancaster University"— Presentation transcript:
Interacting with Context-aware Personal Mobile Devices Keith Cheverst Distributed Multimedia Research Group Lancaster University
A Big Question… What can we do to make mobile personal devices (more) useful? What do we have now? PDAs, CE, PocketX, PC companion, Epoch. What is on the horizon? Realistic wireless connectivity, getting better GSM, GPRS, WAP Phones, Bluetooth. What about applications? Buying books from Amazon while on the move?
Future Mobile Applications… Exploit/utilise what is available… Wireless connectivity Ability to communicate with other systems Control (Did I close the garage door?) Access to dynamic information Traffic info for Glasgow, latest bowls results? Personal (wearable?) Will accompany the user, personalisation of the device Interests (bowls?), Profile (car driver?) Environment – subject to change (mobile!) Location (Glasgow?), Time, Weather etc.
Exploit/Adapt to Context! Context-awareness, (1) Device context, e.g. quality of network connection, screen size, sound capability, available battery power, etc. Previous work focussed on adapting to network QoS MOST application/platform, Agile applications, Odyssey Information flow between App, Middleware and Network (2) Environmental context, e.g. weather, time, service availability, traffic hold-ups etc. (3) Personal context, e.g. the user’s preferences (such as interests) and the user’s knowledge/experience
The GUIDE Project Investigate issues raised of developing a mobile context-aware system Developed to overcome limitations of traditional information and navigation tools available to city visitor Group-based Guides inherently inflexible, fixed start-times durations etc. Satisfy interests of the majority rather than the specific interests of individuals Guide books Can contain out of date information etc.
GUIDE Requirements Requirements Capture Conducted at the TIC Observing information needs of visitors Semi-structured one-to-one interviews with TIC staff Four main requirements Flexibility Enable visitors to explore a city in their own way Present Tailored and Context-sensitive Information Tailored to visitor’s personal and environmental context Support for dynamic information changing opening times, weather forecasts etc. Support for interactive services The booking of accommodation, travel etc.
Communications Infrastructure Cont… Number of WaveLan transceivers deployed in strategic positions in Lancaster compliant Shared 10 Mbit per communications Cell Cell diameter approx 200m – but this can be controlled because there is little penetration of waves through buildings Currently 6 base stations deployed Communications cells used to… Provide positioning information to GUIDE units Broadcast dynamic information
The User Interface
The User Interface Cont… Based around browser metaphor Increasingly familiar tool for information navigation and retrieval Friendly persona, reason… Novice users and the media equation Flexibility to use the system in different ways Map Local expert Tour Guide
Using GUIDE as a Guide
GUIDE Information Model Represents various information types Geographic, hypertext and active components
Implications of Disconnection GUIDE units can loose network connectivity Certain functionality becomes unavailable Location Information Messaging Service Ticket Booking Reception of Dynamic Information Access to those parts of the Info Model that are not currently cached e.g. remote web pages
Mobile Awareness Encourage an appropriate mental model for understanding the role of connectivity Reduce apparent anomalies in behaviour that could affect a visitor’s trust of the system Utilises understanding of the mobile phone Reduced functionality when outside of communications coverage Bars of connectivity metaphor Awareness rather than intrusive
Solving Location Problems: A GUIDE and Visitor Partnership
Evaluation Ascertain quality of experience Determine the Implications of our approach Would users trust the system? Granularity of location information? What about the role connectivity? Expert walkthrough & Field Trial 60 visitors tried the system Usage period between 10 mins and 1 hour
Key Findings …. Visitors accepted the mobile phone analogy Visitors appreciated location-aware navigation Visitors trust of the system was dynamic Level increased when shown detailed and accurate descriptions e.g. ‘watch the step when leaving the path’ Level decreased when information could not be retrieved or appeared inaccurate/incorrect Visitors in age group revelled in technology Explored twice as many links per minute 48/60 visitors wanted conformation of bookings 45/60 accepted the portable end-system
The Role of Network Connectivity Important role in GUIDE Propagation of information model Location information Affects system’s behaviour and Human-Device interaction But… Trust/reliability of information is an issue Information becoming out-of-date during disconnection Solutions? Connectivity awareness Partnership between system and the user
The Role of Context Simplification of task specification e.g. What locations are nearby? Careful of overly constraining the information available to the visitor Tailoring of information e.g. You have already visited the castle Triggering the presentation of information e.g. Castle opening early
Future for GUIDE (1) Supplement communications infrastructure with micro-cellular system, e.g. bluetooth Communication within buildings Finer granularity of positioning info Reduced power consumption Extend the range of context-sensitive interactive services for city residents Automatically ordering a taxi Requesting the location of nearest cash point
Future for GUIDE (2) Investigate potential for remote processing Processor intensive tasks, e.g. calculating tours Different end-systems Users personal WAP Phones or PDA Persistence of user’s profile Constant learning/building of user’s profile Integration with other GUIDE systems International tours/navigation/information?
Future for GUIDE (3) Further evaluation Potential social impacts Use within groups Business models Adaptive presentation (Hypermedia) e.g. Listing attractions based on proximity Problem of unpredictability ILEX (Intelligent Labelling in an art gallery) Descriptions based on expertise & previously seen items Learning/Information retrieval Highlight/reinforce associations
Reinforcing Associations… Information(1) Lancaster Priory built in 1434 A.D. and the architect was Donald Samson. Information(2) Lancaster Priory built in 1434 A.D. and the architect was Donald Samson. Note that this architect also designed the extension to York Cathedral which you visited on 12 th January 1998.
Supporting Context-aware Applications… How can a context-aware application: Obtain context Discover what context information is available Distributed Context Servers Obtain context through notification or polling Obtaining/adapting to context has side effects Consider location Based on querying user Based on reception of location updates Based on GPS Based on DGPS
Supporting Context-aware Applications cont… Service selection depends on context Conserve power + Disconnected Use service based on querying user Disconnected Use service based on GPS Connected Use service based on last received location update
Supporting Context-aware Applications cont… Will need to define policies for specifying the objectives for adapting to a given context or combination of contexts e.g conservation of battery power Need to have system wide arbitration to handle conflicting adaptation policies e.g. one active policy might be to reduce bandwidth while another active policy could be to reduce processing power
Concluding Remarks Development of mobile context-aware applications Careful use of metaphors (e.g. feedback) and info constraints based on context Interaction with mobile device is affected by more than the UI (this is especially true when used for control) Support for context-aware applications needs to consider: Need for generic/scaleable provision/location of context Availability/applicability of context The potential side affects of react/adapting to a change of context
Contact Information… GUIDE Papers: Developing a Context-aware Electronic Tourist Guide: Some Issues and Experiences (CHI2000) The Role of Connectivity in Supporting Context-Sensitive Applications (HUC’99) Architectural Support: Architectural Requirements For The Effective Support Of Adaptive Mobile Applications