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higher graphic communication

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Presentation on theme: "higher graphic communication"— Presentation transcript:

1 higher graphic communication
technical department - boclair academy higher graphic communication KNOWLEDGE & INTERPRETATION

2 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING PAGE 19 - 20 GANTT CHARTS PAGE 21
DESK TOP PUBLISHING PAGE 6 - 9 THE THREE P's PAGE TOLERANCES PAGE DRAWING ABREVIATIONS PAGE COMPUTER HARDWARE PAGE COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING PAGE GANTT CHARTS PAGE 21 THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION PAGE 22 ARCHITECTURAL VIEWS PAGE 23+ SAMPLE QUESTIONS CONTENTS

3 DESK TOP PUBLISHING DESK TOP PUBLISHING

4 THE A - Z OF DESK TOP PUBLISHING
ALIGNMENT – positions of text lines on a page or column e.g. aligned right, aligned left or fully justified. BLEED – this is to extend an artwork graphic beyond the trimmed edge of the page. The bleed is the extent to which it exceeds the page, commonly 3mm. CAPTION – this is the descriptive text which accompanies a graphic or illustration. JUSTIFIED CAPTION BLEED DESK TOP PUBLISHING – the creation of a whole publication on a computer and preparing it for printing using typical publishing processes. FOOTER – a line of text or page number placed at the bottom of the page which is repeated throughout the document. GRAPHIC – an illustration prepared on a paint, draw, CAD package or captured by image scanner which is then imported into a DTP layout. DTP GRAPHIC 1 FOOTER DESK TOP PUBLISHING

5 THE A - Z OF DESK TOP PUBLISHING
HEADLINE – line of type set in a display (large) placed above accompanying text. Usually guides the reader on the content of the body text. INDENT – beginning a line of text further in from the left margin then the rest of the text. JUSTIFICATION – setting of type lines in which the space between words is varied from line to line so that each line is of equal length. JUSTIFIED INDENT HEADLINE KERNING– a DTP function which is used to adjust the spacing between pairs of individual letters on a page. Used to eliminate unwanted white space. LANDSCAPE – a page layout function which arranges the page so that its widest side is horizontal MONTAGE – a combination of separate images combined to give a composite picture/image. KERNING MONTAGE LANDSCAPE (PORTRAIT) 2 DESK TOP PUBLISHING

6 THE A - Z OF DESK TOP PUBLISHING
OUTLINE – a typeface which uses an outline effect. PORTRAIT – a page layout function which arranges the page so that its widest side is vertical. QUOTES – marks which indicate speech e.g, they can be ‘single’ or “double” OUTLINE QUOTES PORTRAIT RUN– the number of copies of a publication to be printed. SPINE – the bound edge of a document/publication TYPE SIZES – the standard point system to describe type sizes. This is based on 72 points to an inch where a 72 point piece of text would measure 1” tall when printed out. PRINTER SPINE 3 TYPE SIZES DESK TOP PUBLISHING

7 THE A - Z OF DESK TOP PUBLISHING
. . . EXAMPLE UNDERLINE – a typeface which is underlined. HEADLINE TEXT WRAP UNDERLINE SUB-HEADING WHITE SPACE– areas of empty space on a page. when used effectively it aids comprehension by complementing and setting off graphic images. IMPORT WHITE SPACE CAPTION 4 DESK TOP PUBLISHING

8 ACTIVITY..... 5 DESK TOP PUBLISHING
TASK – Find a magazine layout slightly under A4 size and stick it onto this page. Using your DTP notes, annotate, explain and justify fully the layout in terms of DTP key words. Use the example on page 4 as a reference guide. 5 DESK TOP PUBLISHING

9 THE 3 P'S THE THREE P’s

10 PRELIMINARY GRAPHICS THUMBNAILS 6 THE THREE P’s - PRELIMINARY
Graphic Communication uses what is collectively known as the 3P’s – preliminary, production and promotional graphics. the first one we will look at is PRELIMINARY GRAPHICS. Preliminary graphics is concerned with the initial stages of graphic design, all your rough or introductory work. Preliminary graphics often take the form of ‘thumbnail sketches’ which are small rough sketches designed to give a quick representation of your designs. These sketches are ideal at this stage of the design process as they do not take long and give you an immediate representation of your work. They also allow you to develop a whole range of ideas quickly which allows you to build on and expand your designs. THUMBNAILS 6 THE THREE P’s - PRELIMINARY

11 PRODUCTION GRAPHICS PRODUCTION 7 THE THREE P’s - PRODUCTION
For a graphic image to be considered a ‘production’ graphic it must convey certain pieces of information which would be of use to someone like a technologist, engineer, architect etc. Production Graphics are concerned with telling us as much information as possible about a product. For example, it would be of benefit to know things like dimensions, moving parts, cross sections, weight, material selection etc. These drawing usually come in the form of Orthographic Drawings, Sectional Views, Exploded Views, Assembly Views, Perspective, Isometric, Sections, Stepped Sections, Cut Aways etc. In order for the drawings to be clear and concise to the manufacturing sector, the drawings are usually produced on AutoCAD or other CAD packages in the form of working drawings or 3D models. PRODUCTION 7 THE THREE P’s - PRODUCTION

12 PROMOTIONAL GRAPHICS PROMOTION 8 THE THREE P’s - PROMOTIONAL
Promotional Graphics are extensively used by the sales and marketing departments of companies. This is where the product or design is displayed, advertised and put into the market place. Promotional graphics come in the form of posters, advertisements, leaflets, flyers, displays etc. In order for a piece of promotional work to be effective, it must attract the consumers attention and make them want to look at it. Promotional Graphics are strongly linked with the A–Z of Desk Top Publishing, and a good promotional graphic will hit many of the criteria described in the document. Promotional Graphics are usually created on software packages such as Corel Draw, Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Publisher etc. PROMOTION 8 THE THREE P’s - PROMOTIONAL

13 ACTIVITY..... CD COVER 9 THUMBNAILS THE THREE P’s - ACTIVITY
TASK – use your knowledge of ‘thumbnail’ sketching with regards to preliminary graphics and produce a series of drawings for a CD cover of your choice. You will have to design the front and back cover as well as the spine. Once you have completed your thumbnails, complete and print out your final DTP design and stick it onto this page. CD COVER THUMBNAILS 9 THE THREE P’s - ACTIVITY

14 TOLERANCES TOLERANCES

15 TOLERANCES 10 WHAT IS A TOLERANCE ? PLUS AND MINUS TOLERANCE
Why have tolerances on drawing? When building a house or large structure, it would be virtually impossible to get sizes exact, therefore a tolerance lets builders and engineers etc. know when close is close enough. WHAT IS A TOLERANCE ? In terms of architectural and engineering drawing, applying a tolerance allows a drawing to be out (inaccurate) by a certain amount. Depending on what the object is being used for, the tolerance may allow the sizes be out by +/- 1mm, or even up to +/- 10mm. Tolerances for geometrical dimensions describe the allowable deviation range and are characterised by; plus and minus tolerances, dimension ranges and dimension limits. A tolerance size can be in the form of a radial dimension, angular, distance, curve etc. etc. PLUS AND MINUS TOLERANCE 10 TOLERANCES

16 ACTIVITY..... TASK – Explain the purpose of applying tolerances to working or engineering drawings TASK – using your knowledge of tolerances, apply the following tolerances to the drawing shown below. Angular dimension of 30mm applied to the web section, tolerance of plus or minus 0.10mm. Diameter of hole on plan of 10mm, tolerance of plus or minus 0.05mm Radius of large circle on right side of 20mm, tolerance of plus or minus 0.10mm. TASK – tolerances can be applied to a drawing using two methods, what are these methods ? 11 TOLERANCES

17 DRAWING ABBREVIATIONS

18 DRAWING ABBREVIATIONS
R – radius. Distance from centre to the edge of a circle or arc. – diameter. Distance from the edge to edge of a circle through the centre. ANSI – American National Standards Institution. Government organisation which ensures uniform procedures and practice in design, engineering and drafting. ISO – International Standards Organisation. International organisation which ensures uniform procedures and practice in design, engineering and drafting. A/F – across the flats. Unit of measurement on geometric shapes, referring to sizes across the parallel sides. PCD – pitch circle diameter. Description of the measurement between two circles. Dimension is usually given as the size between centre points of the two circles. ASSY – assembly. This abbreviation refers to an assembly drawing, where all parts are placed together. DRG – drawing. This abbreviation is the standard term for any type of technical drawing. NTS – not to scale. Often shown on technical drawings highlighting that the drawing isn’t drawn to a particular scale. TOL – tolerance. Used to show if any tolerances have been applied to the technical drawing. CSK – countersunk. Shows that a screw head has been countersunk and will appear flush with a surface. CL – centre line. Used to denote a centre line on a technical drawing. 12 DRAWING ABBREVIATIONS

19 ACTIVITY..... 13 DRAWING ABBREVIATIONS
TASK – using the drawing abbreviations sheet, annotate, dimension and note the following drawing in terms of the correct BS convention. Note, there is no right or wrong answer to this question, it’s simply intended as an exercise in applying drawing abbreviations. 13 DRAWING ABBREVIATIONS

20 COMPUTER HARDWARE COMPUTER HARDWARE

21 Digital camera is often used in the architectural and engineering sectors to photograph parts of a product or structure to report back to the design department. A flat bed scanner is often used to transfer existing manual drawings into a computers memory. A loss in quality often occurs during this process A hand held scanner is used to manually scan an image. This requires you to move the scanner over your image. Due to changes in speed when moving it, the image is often distorted. A printer is simply used to produce hard copies of a drawing or document. Printers don’t usually go above A3 size. A laser printer produces excellent quality. A plotter is usually used to produce A2 or A1 sized architectural drawings. It uses different coloured pens for coloured lines as opposed to a cartridge used by a printer. A graphics tablet is like a digital pen – whatever you write or draw on the tablet appears on screen. Can be used to transfer CAD drawings onto computer memory. 14 COMPUTER HARDWARE

22 Task – explain the advantage of using a flatbed scanner to scan drawings as opposed to using a hand scanner? A modem is used to transfer files via to other computer stations over the world. This allows various companies to quickly see a drawing/object. Task – explain the difference between computer software and hardware? Task – explain the advantage of using a digital camera opposed to a scanner to place drawings on a computer memory? Task – what kind of ‘files’ can pictures/images be stored as? Explain the difference between these? 15 COMPUTER HARDWARE

23 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING

24 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING
Very often in the Higher Graphic Communication exam you will be given a Computer Aided Drawing scenario. This will probably involve an incomplete CAD drawing followed by a complete CAD drawing. The task you will be faced with will be to explain how you can get from stage one to stage two. Take a look at the drawing shown to the right and consider the most practical and efficient method of getting from stage one to stage two. The examiners are looking for you to show an extensive knowledge of CAD – this is your opportunity to show everything you know about the package! STAGE ONE STAGE TWO 16 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING

25 FILLET MIRROR CHAMFER TEXT BOX BOX ARRAY 17 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING
The bottom corner is drawn by using the fillet icon. This allows the corner to have a rounded edge. When you select the fillet icon you have the option to alter the ‘fillet radius’ which would allow you to increase or decrease the size of curve. To save drawing the complex line and arc twice, this shape would be drawn using the mirror icon. This allows you to select a base point and create a ‘mirror’ image of a shape already drawn on CAD. This saves a lot of time and ensures maximum accuracy. CHAMFER TEXT BOX The top right hand corner of the drawing was drawn using the chamfer icon. This allows you to take a uniform cut out of the shape. As with the fillet, once you click on the icon you have the option to change the chamfer size. The writing ‘text box’ was drawn using the text box icon. When using this you have the option to have single line text or multi line text, depending on the circumstances. You also have masses of further options with this icon, such as rotating text to particular angles or using it in isometric views with the oblique angle option. BOX ARRAY The quickest and most efficient method of drawing these boxes is to use the box array function. This saves you having to draw the boxes individually or even copying and pasting them. The box array icon allows you to specify the amount of rows and columns you require to create your array of boxes. 17 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING

26 ACTIVITY..... PAN BREAK POLYLINE UCS TRIM SCALE COPY WITH BASE POINT
Explain as fully as possible what the following CAD commands do . . . PAN BREAK POLYLINE UCS TRIM SCALE COPY WITH BASE POINT EXTRUDE PLOT 18 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING

27 GANTT CHARTS GANTT CHARTS

28 GANTT CHARTS PROJECT SCHEDULE PROJECT SCHEDULE PROJECT SCHEDULE 19
WHAT IS A GANTT CHART ? A gantt chart is a graphical representation of the duration of tasks against the progression of time. In simple terms, a gantt chart is a method of showing how a task is broken up, how many hours, resources and people are involved in these tasks, and quite often, how much the task is going to cost. Shown to the right are various examples of gantt charts. PROJECT SCHEDULE PROJECT SCHEDULE PROJECT SCHEDULE 19 GANTT CHARTS

29 ACTIVITY..... With reference to the gantt charts shown overleaf, complete a gantt chart for the following sequence of operations. Use the grid as a guide. A manufacturing process employs 6 workers. From the information given below, draw a gantt chart for the process. Worker 1 requires 4 weeks; halfway through, he is joined by worker 2 who requires 2 weeks, followed by worker 3 who requires 2 weeks; worker 4 requires 2 weeks, the first immediately after worker 3, the second during the same week as worker 6; worker 5 requires 5 weeks, the first week overlapping the first week of worker 4. Worker 6 requires 1 week at the end of the process. 20 GANTT CHARTS

30 THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION

31 THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION
Shown below is the symbol for representing third angle orthographic projection. This symbol is a standard and essential piece of information which must be shown on all technical drawings. What other things do you have to show on your drawings? Something your teacher may very often ask you to put on your drawings is a name box. What information do you usually show in your name box? List 5 important pieces of information you have to put in your name box opposite. THE NAME BOX! Your name! 2 3 4 5 6 21 THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION

32 ARCHITECTURAL VIEWS ARCHITECTURAL VIEWS

33 ARCHITECTURAL VIEWS ACTIVITY . . . SITE PLAN LOCATION VIEW FLOOR PLAN
Quite often in an exam you will be asked to identify various types of architectural views. Hopefully you will still be familiar with these from Standard Grade. The three most common types of views are ; Site Plan, Location View and Floor Plan and there are examples of each on this page. SITE PLAN LOCATION VIEW ACTIVITY . . . You are very often given other pieces of information alongside these views. Write down as many other things you have seen on these architectural views and explain why they are there. FLOOR PLAN 22 ARCHITECTURAL VIEWS

34 SAMPLE QUESTIONS SAMPLE QUESTIONS

35 23 QUESTION 2 QUESTION 1 SAMPLE QUESTIONS
The following layouts are taken from a simple CAD drawing. State the name of the CAD feature exemplified above. “Describe” the CAD feature exemplified above. State two benefits of using the CAD feature exemplified above. QUESTION 1 The graphics for the construction of a project fall into 3 main types: Preliminary, Production and Promotional. State from the list above which the sketch shown falls into. Describe the purpose of this type of graphic. What will be the next stage in the process for the designer? 23 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

36 24 QUESTION 3 QUESTION 4 SAMPLE QUESTIONS X C2 C1 X
Describe fully the following illustration and presentation terms. Colour Gradients Highlights Make Up Import Centre Spread Banner Cannon Ball QUESTION 4 An incomplete rectangle has been drawn using a CAD package. Sketch on the drawing above the effects of applying the following CAD commands: Chamfer at C1 Fillet at C2 mirror the drawing (including the fillet and chamfer) about axis X – X Hatch the mirrored drawing Fully explain below the advantages of using computer aided drawing over traditional boardwork……… X C2 C1 X 24 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

37 25 QUESTION 5 SAMPLE QUESTIONS
Using the desktop publication shown, complete the table below. State the DTP term for the deliberately created clear area to the left of the letters CRM State the DTP term for the page number at the bottom right of the publication. State the DTP term for the orientation of this desktop publication Describe the purpose of using a caption State the DTP term for the large “CRM” letters at the top left of the page. DTP is used extensively in promotional graphics. Name at least 3 types of software package DTP publications are produced on. 1. Microsoft Publisher 2. 3. 4. 25 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

38 26 QUESTION 6 QUESTION 7 SAMPLE QUESTIONS
Describe, with the aid of a sketch, the purpose of the following sectional views. Section in two or more parallel planes (stepped sectional view) Half sectional view. Cut Away QUESTION 7 Name two devices that can be used to input photographs to a computers memory for use in a DTP document. 1. 2. Compare the benefits of using each device. Describe the process of transferring CAD drawings to a DTP document. State the fastest method of electronically sending a DTP document accurately over a distance. What piece of computer “hardware” allows this information to be sent electronically? 26 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

39 THUMBNAILS VISUALS 27 QUESTION 8 QUESTION 9 SAMPLE QUESTIONS
British Standard Conventions use a number of line types to indicate different applications. An example of a line type description and application is given below. QUESTION 9 In the box below, draw a series of “thumbnail sketches” for your new book “My autobiography.” These sketches should show a variety of ideas of how you plan your front cover, back cover and spine to look. Be as creative as possible! THUMBNAILS In the box below, complete your section of thumbnail sketches by adding a “visual” This will be your best design from above rendered and further enhanced. Your teacher will fully explain the principle or visuals. VISUALS 27 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

40 28 QUESTION 10 QUESTION 11 SAMPLE QUESTIONS
State the name of the computer-aided fill features illustrated. Write a short statement describing each of the following processes associated with computer graphics/ (1) Copy and Paste (2) Cut and Paste (c) Describe clearly the computer-aided process layering, with particular reference to how an architect could use this feature. QUESTION 11 In the drawing below, there are five errors in applying British Standards conventions with respect to dimensioning and hatching. Apply the conventions correctly to the adjacent box. Apply parallel dimensioning and chain dimensioning to the horizontal sizes on the sketches below. Two identical posts, each nominally 200mm high, are set apart at 2.0m nominal centres. There are tolerances on both sizes and locations of the posts and these are shown on the drawing. State the maximum and minimum possible clear widths between the posts. MAX - MIN - 28 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

41 29 QUESTION 12 QUESTION 13 SAMPLE QUESTIONS
Each of the four drawings below shows conventional representation of information that may be seen in a production drawing. For each drawing, state what information is being represented. Shown below are four commonly accepted British Standards conventions abbreviations. State which each abbreviation means. QUESTION 13 Tolerances can be applied to dimensions either by adding a note to the drawing or applying the tolerance directly to the dimension. State one reason for the choice of each means of representation. Complete the drawing below by dimensioning the 45 degree chamfer on the shaft end to British Standards conventions. 29 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

42 TABLE OF CO-ORDINATE DIMENSIONS
QUESTION 14 Draw the holes specified in the table of co-ordinate dimensions below within the given box. Show the centres clearly. (3) State one advantage of using this form of dimensioning. (1) TABLE OF CO-ORDINATE DIMENSIONS HOLE X Y A1 15 15 16 Y A2 15 50 16 B 45 30 20 X 30 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

43 HIGHER 2004 31 PAST HIGHER EXAM QUESTIONS

44 HIGHER 2004 32 PAST HIGHER EXAM QUESTIONS

45 HIGHER 2004 33 PAST HIGHER EXAM QUESTIONS

46 HIGHER 2003 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

47 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

48 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

49 SAMPLE QUESTIONS

50 SAMPLE QUESTIONS


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