Presentation on theme: "Graphic Communication Signs & Symbols. Signs n Signs are used to convey information in pictorial form. n This has many advantages over written instructions."— Presentation transcript:
Graphic Communication Signs & Symbols
Signs n Signs are used to convey information in pictorial form. n This has many advantages over written instructions. n People who talk different languages can understand the same common signs. n Instructions for some tasks can be clearer when given as drawings.
Signs & Symbols n Signs & symbols are commonly used in everyday situations. n Roadsigns, information, engineering symbols, flow charts and circuit diagrams are types of drawings that you will need to know about for your exams.
Signs n There are different families of signs. n These are: –mandatory signs –prohibition signs –warning signs –safety signs –danger signs
Signs - Mandatory signs n These signs are blue in colour. n They give a positive instruction. In other words they tell you what to do rather than what not to do. Turn left
Signs - Prohibition signs n These signs are circular with a line across the circle. n They are red in colour. No smoking
Signs - Warning signs n These signs are yellow. n They are normally triangular but can be other shapes.
Signs - Safety Signs n These signs tell people of safe places to go or safe conditions.
Signs - Danger signs n These signs warn people of dangerous situations. n Commonly found on roadsigns and the back of long vehicles.
Signs n There are also general information signs used for a number of different purposes. n Some common signs are shown over the next few slides.
Signs - Kitemark n The Kitemark is used to tell consumers that the products they buy are safety tested to BSI standards. n All products sold must carry this Kitemark to be legally sold. The British Standards Kitemark.
Signs - Fragile n This mark is placed on breakable objects’ packaging to tell people handling the box to treat it with care. The Fragile symbol.
Signs - Recycled n This mark is placed on recycled objects to tell the consumer that they are buying a recycled product. n This is a big advertising point as companies like their products to be seen as being environmentally friendly.
Signs - Disabled n This is used to show disabled access.
Signs - male & female n These signs are used commonly to distinguish the male and female toilets.
Flow Charts n A Flow Chart is a method of showing the correct steps to follow in order to complete some type of problem. n There are some symbols used in flow charts to show certain processes that have to be done when completing the problem.
Flow Charts n These symbols are shown below. Process Decision Start/Stop Input/Output
Flow Charts n An example of a flow chart for a pelican crossing is shown: Start Has button been pushed? Amber light on Red light on Amber light flash Red light off Wait 2 Wait 10 Wait 5 Green light on Yes No
Circuit Diagrams n When electrical circuits are designed, standard symbols are used to tell people what the different components are. n This is so people from different countries and areas can understand the drawings. n It would be dangerous for a person to wire a circuit up incorrectly simply because they did not understand the drawing!
Circuit Diagrams n These symbols are drawn to British Standards. n You have to know some of them. These are drawn over the next two slides. junctions cross-overs switch (general symbol)
Circuit Diagrams battery bulb electric bell microphone loudspeaker
Drawing Symbols n Drawings use many different line types to show different parts of an object. n These are standardised so that anyone can understand what is meant by a particular line type regardless of where they come from.
Drawing Symbols n Orthographic drawings are drawn in Third Angle Projection. n This is a standard drawing layout covered in the tutorial on orthographic projection where the 3 views are drawn in the direction you are looking at them.
Drawing Symbols n The 3rd Angle Projection symbol is shown below. n This is normally included on a drawing to tell people the standard it is drawn in.
Drawing Symbols n Different line types used include: –outlines –projection lines –hidden detail –centre lines –cutting planes –fold lines
Drawing Symbols - Outlines n Outlines are used to show the outline of an object. n They are thicker than projection lines. n Drawn at 0.7mm thick.
Drawing Symbols - Projection Lines n Projection lines are used to help construct a drawing. n They are not part of the outline of the drawing and are drawn lightly and thin.
Drawing Symbols - Hidden Detail n Hidden detail lines are used to show any part of an object that cannot be seen but does exist. n They are dashed lines.
Drawing Symbols - Centre Lines n Centre lines are used to show the centre of circles or lines of symmetry. n They are drawn as a series of long and short dashes.
Drawing Symbols - Cutting Planes n Cutting planes are used to show where an object is cut in a sectional drawing. n The arrows tell us what direction the cut is to be viewed. n The letters are the label of the section. n The ends of the cutting plane are drawn slightly thicker than the rest of it. X X
Drawing Symbols - Fold Lines n Fold lines are used to show where surface developments should be folded.
Building Symbols n Engineers need to use symbols to show the different materials used in building a house. n This is law as when submitting planning permission a company must be able to prove the quality of the houses or buildings they want to build.
Building Symbols n These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. BathSink top Sink Washbasin Shower tray Radiator
Building Symbols n These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. In-line valve (any type) Window Sawn wood Door Junctions Crossover
Building Symbols n These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. Bulb Insulation Switch Socket Brickwork Concrete
Storyboards n Storyboards give step by step instructions on how to operate something using pictures to illustrate what is to be done at each stage. n Short statements further help the user understand what to do. n They are often found on change machines and in electrical appliance instructions.
Storyboards n These are advantageous as a person does not have to speak any specific language to understand what to do. n The written instructions are kept very short which helps people who, for any reason, cannot read things properly. n Often the statements are also given in many different languages to help foreigners.
Building drawings n A number of different drawings are required to be completed and submitted to the local authorities when developers want to build new buildings. n This group of drawings is called a Project Set.
Project Set n A project set consists of a number of different drawings including –elevations –sketches –sectional drawings –schematic diagrams –location plans –site plans –floor plans
Project Set n Elevations, sketches and sectional drawings are required to view the actual building. n Schematic diagrams are used by tradesmen to install any electrical circuit work or plumbing and heating. n Schematic diagrams use British Standards symbols covered in these slides.
Location Plans n This type of drawing shows the position of the new building in its surrounding area. n It is as if you are looking at the building from an aeroplane above. n It is normally drawn to a scale of 1:1250.
Location Plans n This is an example of a location plan. Albany Terrace Albany Drive Albany Road
Site Plans n This type of drawing shows the building from closer in than a Location Plan. n It is like a bird is looking down at it. n It shows the building in its immediate surrounding area. n It is normally drawn at a scale of 1:200.
Site Plans n This is an example of a site plan. Glenisla Drive
Floor Plans n This type of drawing shows the internal layout of a building including the materials used in the walls. n Any electrical appliances fitted will also be drawn like, radiators, electrical sockets and switches. n This type of drawing is normally drawn at a scale of 1:50.
Floor Plans n This is an example of a floor plan.