2Signs Signs are used to convey information in pictorial form. This has many advantages over written instructions.People who talk different languages can understand the same common signs.Instructions for some tasks can be clearer when given as drawings.
3Signs & SymbolsSigns & symbols are commonly used in everyday situations.Roadsigns, information, engineering symbols, flow charts and circuit diagrams are types of drawings that you will need to know about for your exams.
4Signs There are different families of signs. These are: mandatory signsprohibition signswarning signssafety signsdanger signs
5Signs - Mandatory signs These signs are blue in colour.They give a positive instruction. In other words they tell you what to do rather than what not to do.Turn left
6Signs - Prohibition signs These signs are circular with a line across the circle.They are red in colour.No smoking
7Signs - Warning signs These signs are yellow. They are normally triangular but can be other shapes.
8Signs - Safety SignsThese signs tell people of safe places to go or safe conditions.
9Signs - Danger signs These signs warn people of dangerous situations. Commonly found on roadsigns and the back of long vehicles.
10SignsThere are also general information signs used for a number of different purposes.Some common signs are shown over the next few slides.
11Signs - KitemarkThe Kitemark is used to tell consumers that the products they buy are safety tested to BSI standards.All products sold must carry this Kitemark to be legally sold.The British Standards Kitemark.
12Signs - FragileThis mark is placed on breakable objects’ packaging to tell people handling the box to treat it with care.The Fragile symbol.
13Signs - RecycledThis mark is placed on recycled objects to tell the consumer that they are buying a recycled product.This is a big advertising point as companies like their products to be seen as being environmentally friendly.
14Signs - DisabledThis is used to show disabled access.
15Signs - male & femaleThese signs are used commonly to distinguish the male and female toilets.
16Flow ChartsA Flow Chart is a method of showing the correct steps to follow in order to complete some type of problem.There are some symbols used in flow charts to show certain processes that have to be done when completing the problem.
17Flow Charts These symbols are shown below. Decision Input/Output ProcessStart/Stop
18StartHas button been pushed?Amber light onRed light onAmber light flashRed light offWait 2Wait 10Wait 5Green light onYesNoFlow ChartsAn example of a flow chart for a pelican crossing is shown:
19Circuit DiagramsWhen electrical circuits are designed, standard symbols are used to tell people what the different components are.This is so people from different countries and areas can understand the drawings.It would be dangerous for a person to wire a circuit up incorrectly simply because they did not understand the drawing!
20Circuit Diagrams These symbols are drawn to British Standards. You have to know some of them. These are drawn over the next two slides.junctionsswitch (general symbol)cross-overs
22Drawing SymbolsDrawings use many different line types to show different parts of an object.These are standardised so that anyone can understand what is meant by a particular line type regardless of where they come from.
23Drawing SymbolsOrthographic drawings are drawn in Third Angle Projection.This is a standard drawing layout covered in the tutorial on orthographic projection where the 3 views are drawn in the direction you are looking at them.
24Drawing Symbols The 3rd Angle Projection symbol is shown below. This is normally included on a drawing to tell people the standard it is drawn in.
25Drawing Symbols Different line types used include: outlines projection lineshidden detailcentre linescutting planesfold lines
26Drawing Symbols - Outlines Outlines are used to show the outline of an object.They are thicker than projection lines.Drawn at 0.7mm thick.
27Drawing Symbols - Projection Lines Projection lines are used to help construct a drawing.They are not part of the outline of the drawing and are drawn lightly and thin.
28Drawing Symbols - Hidden Detail Hidden detail lines are used to show any part of an object that cannot be seen but does exist.They are dashed lines.
29Drawing Symbols - Centre Lines Centre lines are used to show the centre of circles or lines of symmetry.They are drawn as a series of long and short dashes.
30Drawing Symbols - Cutting Planes Cutting planes are used to show where an object is cut in a sectional drawing.The arrows tell us what direction the cut is to be viewed.The letters are the label of the section.The ends of the cutting plane are drawn slightly thicker than the rest of it.XX
31Drawing Symbols - Fold Lines Fold lines are used to show where surface developments should be folded.
32Building SymbolsEngineers need to use symbols to show the different materials used in building a house.This is law as when submitting planning permission a company must be able to prove the quality of the houses or buildings they want to build.
33Building SymbolsThese are some common symbols that you will need to remember.Shower traySink topSinkBathWashbasinRadiator
34Building SymbolsThese are some common symbols that you will need to remember.Sawn woodIn-line valve (any type)WindowJunctionsDoorCrossover
35Building SymbolsThese are some common symbols that you will need to remember.BrickworkSwitchBulbConcreteSocketInsulation
36StoryboardsStoryboards give step by step instructions on how to operate something using pictures to illustrate what is to be done at each stage.Short statements further help the user understand what to do.They are often found on change machines and in electrical appliance instructions.
37StoryboardsThese are advantageous as a person does not have to speak any specific language to understand what to do.The written instructions are kept very short which helps people who, for any reason, cannot read things properly.Often the statements are also given in many different languages to help foreigners.
38Building drawingsA number of different drawings are required to be completed and submitted to the local authorities when developers want to build new buildings.This group of drawings is called a Project Set.
39Project SetA project set consists of a number of different drawings includingelevationssketchessectional drawingsschematic diagramslocation planssite plansfloor plans
40Project SetElevations, sketches and sectional drawings are required to view the actual building.Schematic diagrams are used by tradesmen to install any electrical circuit work or plumbing and heating.Schematic diagrams use British Standards symbols covered in these slides.
41Location PlansThis type of drawing shows the position of the new building in its surrounding area.It is as if you are looking at the building from an aeroplane above.It is normally drawn to a scale of 1:1250.
42Location Plans This is an example of a location plan. Albany Terrace Albany DriveAlbany Road
43Site PlansThis type of drawing shows the building from closer in than a Location Plan.It is like a bird is looking down at it.It shows the building in its immediate surrounding area.It is normally drawn at a scale of 1:200.
44Site Plans This is an example of a site plan. 8.5 12.5 5 7 2 Glenisla Drive78.55212.5
45Floor PlansThis type of drawing shows the internal layout of a building including the materials used in the walls.Any electrical appliances fitted will also be drawn like, radiators, electrical sockets and switches.This type of drawing is normally drawn at a scale of 1:50.