2 Also interesting for other applications. NS FFAGsNon-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating GradientInvented for muon acceleration in a Neutrino FactoryAlso interesting for other applications.For example:hadron therapyADSRProton acceleration
3 NS FFAGs But.....novel features.......must build PoP machine Not cheap, so where does the funding come from?Exploit KE possibilities, via BT fundCONFORM consortium: £8.2MBuild PoP machine – EMMADesign Hadron therapy machine – PAMELAStudy other applications, mainly ADSR and muonsStarted 1st April 2007, finish March 2011.
5 4-sector commissioning EMMA StatusBeing commissionedBeam has made many turns at fixed energyAcceleration being worked on....will restart in Jan“2 year” experimental programme to follow, subject to fundingEMMA Control room22:45 on 22nd June4-sector commissioning
9 Accelerator Crucial component 10MW well beyond state-of-the-art 99.9% reliabilityunheard of!needs redundancyOnly two candidates:linear accelerator ← expensiveFFAG ← build ~3 for same price
10 Isochronous 250-1000 MeV NS FFAG Ring General Parameters of an initial – 1 GeV non-scaling, isochronous FFAG lattice designParameter250 MeV585 MeV1000 MeVAvg. Radius (m)3.4194.3075.030Cell x / y (2 rad)Ring.0.380/0.2371.520/0.9480.400/0.1491.600/0.5960.383/0.2421.532/0.968Field F/D (T)1.62/-0.142.06/-0.312.35/-0.42Magnet Size F/D Inj1.17/0.381.59/0.791.94/1.14Clockwise: Ring tune from design script, deviation from isochronous orbit (%), and radius vs. momentumComments and further workTracking results indicate ~50-100 mm-mr; relatively insensitive to errorsLow losses :
11 Target Studies Most likely show-stopper for a Neutrino Factory 4MW beam, 0.75MW in target, 300J/cm3 Thermal shock: >1GPa – exceeds tensile strength Temperature: 100K/pulse, 50 pulses/s Radiation damage Radiation safety!Solution found using tungstenHas involved:modelling of energy deposition, stress waves, etcmeasurements of shock and cf with modellingsimulation of pion, neutron, etc, productionactivation studies, shielding requirementscooling studies
12 Expertise gained applicable elsewhere. Target StudiesMeasured Young’s Modulus & yield strength of W and Ta at higher temp and strain rate than anybody else.Expertise gained applicable elsewhere.
13 BNCT Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Used, for example, to treat “glio-blastoma multiforme”Use boron-10: stable, but fissions with a thermal neutronNeeds a lot of ns:1x109 cm-2s-1 for 30minsOnly current source: nuclear reactor!Possible with accelerators: 5mA protons at ~2.5MeV 12.5kW in ~100mAccelerator & BNCT facility exist in BhamProject to upgrade starting: aim clinical trials