2Also interesting for other applications. NS FFAGsNon-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating GradientInvented for muon acceleration in a Neutrino FactoryAlso interesting for other applications.For example:hadron therapyADSRProton acceleration
3NS FFAGs But.....novel features.......must build PoP machine Not cheap, so where does the funding come from?Exploit KE possibilities, via BT fundCONFORM consortium: £8.2MBuild PoP machine – EMMADesign Hadron therapy machine – PAMELAStudy other applications, mainly ADSR and muonsStarted 1st April 2007, finish March 2011.
54-sector commissioning EMMA StatusBeing commissionedBeam has made many turns at fixed energyAcceleration being worked on....will restart in Jan“2 year” experimental programme to follow, subject to fundingEMMA Control room22:45 on 22nd June4-sector commissioning
9Accelerator Crucial component 10MW well beyond state-of-the-art 99.9% reliabilityunheard of!needs redundancyOnly two candidates:linear accelerator ← expensiveFFAG ← build ~3 for same price
10Isochronous 250-1000 MeV NS FFAG Ring General Parameters of an initial – 1 GeV non-scaling, isochronous FFAG lattice designParameter250 MeV585 MeV1000 MeVAvg. Radius (m)3.4194.3075.030Cell x / y (2 rad)Ring.0.380/0.2371.520/0.9480.400/0.1491.600/0.5960.383/0.2421.532/0.968Field F/D (T)1.62/-0.142.06/-0.312.35/-0.42Magnet Size F/D Inj1.17/0.381.59/0.791.94/1.14Clockwise: Ring tune from design script, deviation from isochronous orbit (%), and radius vs. momentumComments and further workTracking results indicate ~50-100 mm-mr; relatively insensitive to errorsLow losses :
11Target Studies Most likely show-stopper for a Neutrino Factory 4MW beam, 0.75MW in target, 300J/cm3 Thermal shock: >1GPa – exceeds tensile strength Temperature: 100K/pulse, 50 pulses/s Radiation damage Radiation safety!Solution found using tungstenHas involved:modelling of energy deposition, stress waves, etcmeasurements of shock and cf with modellingsimulation of pion, neutron, etc, productionactivation studies, shielding requirementscooling studies
12Expertise gained applicable elsewhere. Target StudiesMeasured Young’s Modulus & yield strength of W and Ta at higher temp and strain rate than anybody else.Expertise gained applicable elsewhere.
13BNCT Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Used, for example, to treat “glio-blastoma multiforme”Use boron-10: stable, but fissions with a thermal neutronNeeds a lot of ns:1x109 cm-2s-1 for 30minsOnly current source: nuclear reactor!Possible with accelerators: 5mA protons at ~2.5MeV 12.5kW in ~100mAccelerator & BNCT facility exist in BhamProject to upgrade starting: aim clinical trials