NS FFAGs NS FFAGs Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Invented for muon acceleration in a Neutrino Factory Also interesting for other applications. For example: hadron therapy ADSR Proton acceleration
NS FFAGs NS FFAGs But.....novel features must build PoP machine Not cheap, so where does the funding come from? Exploit KE possibilities, via BT fund CONFORM consortium: £8.2M Build PoP machine – EMMA Design Hadron therapy machine – PAMELA Study other applications, mainly ADSR and muons Started 1 st April 2007, finish March 2011.
EMMA Status EMMA Status Being commissioned Beam has made many turns at fixed energy Acceleration being worked on....will restart in Jan “2 year” experimental programme to follow, subject to funding EMMA Control room 22:45 on 22 nd June 4-sector commissioning
PAMELA Status PAMELA Status Design study finished and being written up Next step - prototyping: Ring magnet RF cavity Extraction kicker There is interesting in building it
Accelerator Crucial component 10MW well beyond state-of-the-art 99.9% reliability unheard of! needs redundancy Only two candidates: linear accelerator← expensive FFAG← build ~3 for same price
2m Parameter250 MeV585 MeV1000 MeV Avg. Radius (m) Cell x / y (2 rad) Ring / / / / / /0.968 Field F/D (T) 1.62/ / /-0.42 Magnet Size F/D Inj 1.17/ / /1.14 Comments and further work –Tracking results indicate ~ mm-mr; relatively insensitive to errors –Low losses : General Parameters of an initial – 1 GeV non- scaling, isochronous FFAG lattice design Clockwise: Ring tune from design script, deviation from isochronous orbit (%), and radius vs. momentum Isochronous MeV NS FFAG Ring
Target Studies Target Studies Most likely show-stopper for a Neutrino Factory 4MW beam, 0.75MW in target, 300J/cm 3 Thermal shock: >1GPa – exceeds tensile strength Temperature: 100K/pulse, 50 pulses/s Radiation damage Radiation safety! Solution found using tungsten Has involved: modelling of energy deposition, stress waves, etc measurements of shock and cf with modelling simulation of pion, neutron, etc, production activation studies, shielding requirements cooling studies
Target Studies Target Studies Measured Young’s Modulus & yield strength of W and Ta at higher temp and strain rate than anybody else. Expertise gained applicable elsewhere.
BNCT Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Used, for example, to treat “glio-blastoma multiforme” Use boron-10: stable, but fissions with a thermal neutron Needs a lot of ns: 1x10 9 cm -2 s -1 for 30mins Only current source: nuclear reactor! Possible with accelerators: 5mA protons at ~2.5MeV 12.5kW in ~100 m Accelerator & BNCT facility exist in Bham Project to upgrade starting: aim clinical trials
Other Target Activities Thermal neutrons for ADSR Waste transmutation Security applications Goran Skoro: possible next ISIS target expert