Presentation on theme: "Gang-associated sexual exploitation and sexual violence"— Presentation transcript:
1Gang-associated sexual exploitation and sexual violence Fiona FactorInstitute of Applied Social ResearchUniversity of Bedfordshire
2Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG) October The Children's Commissioner set up a two year inquiryPhase 1 of the inquiry is now complete. The report in November 2012 indicated that professionals need to:be more aware of the indicatorsbe better able to identify young women at risk of exploitationadjust their service provision to create conditions where girls are safely able to disclose information.This is what Phase 1 reported – final report in November 2013All reports available via OCC website
3UoB Research Funded by Office of Children’s Commissioner for England running alongside Inquiry Gang-associated sexual violence and exploitation (SVE)Scale and natureRoutes inPotential responsesIn-depth study in 6 research sites (anonymised)Multi-method approachDirect engagement with 190 young people:150 individual interviews & focus groups with 40;Focus groups with 70 professionals;Lit/policy/secondary data.Interim report November 12;Final report November 13Methods:Using secondary statistical data as to known extentInterviews with 150 young people – ‘sex and relationships in gangs’; talk in third person.Focus groups with professionals – fill gaps, provide context, responsesFocus groups with young people - responses
4Ending Gang and Youth Violence Report - Nov 2011 Gang strategies focus on male gang perpetrators and victimsLittle hard data on women and girls affected by gang violenceInvolvement in criminal activity and subject to sexual exploitationNeed to establish Women, Girls and Gangs working groupThere is a lot of activity, research and policy development at the moment – for example EGYV, SYC, YJB
5Serious youth violence and girls Serious youth and gang-related violence against children is a safeguarding and child protection issue.The role of the Safeguarding Children Boards is key to getting partnership commitment to the development of local strategies.YOTs should work with local partners to:identify young women at risk of serious youth violenceprovide an environment where young women are able to safely disclose informationensure local services are able to respond to identified risks and needs in a way that ensures the safety of young women and girls.
6DefinitionsGANG:A relatively durable, predominantly street-based group of young people who (1) see themselves (and are seen by others) as a discernible group, (2) engage in a range of criminal activity and violence, (3) identify with or lay claim over territory, (4) have some form of identifying structural feature, and (5) are in conflict with other, similar, gangs’(Pitts 2008; Centre for Social Justice 2009)Disconnect between how young people and professionals define gangsAnd how young people and professionals define CSE/SV – ‘sex and relationships; the good and the bad’
7Definition of SVESexual exploitation: exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where a young person (or a third person) receives ‘something’ in return for involvement in some form of sexual activity (DSCF 2009).Sexual violence: incorporates any behaviour that is perceived to be of a sexual nature, which is unwanted or takes place without consent or understanding (NIO 2008).Still problematic and complex and we have struggles to explore what these terms mean in application and their usefulnessSo for example – where would peer on peer abuse sit?Is what we are talking about often child abuse?
8Individual interviews 48% female; 52% male13-28 years of age: half under 1813 to 15 = 21%,16 and 17 = 28% (49% children),18 to 20 =28%21-25 =21%45% in education; 20% in training; 18% in employment; 15% NEET; 2% other38% have had children’s services involvement40% reported history of criminalitySite representation ranged from 9% to 28% of overall sample
9Nature of gangs Area-based Predominantly male Some female only gangs Variable ethnic composition across different localesRaison d’etre and mode of operation varies across, and within sites
10Routes into gang environment Involvement of family or friends in gangsNormalisation of gang-involvement within social networkDesire for a sense of belonging, status, power and/or respectNeed for protectionDisaffection with or disengagement from educationLack of training or employment opportunitiesInadequate youth provision (particularly given the impact of recent cuts)Difficulties at home or in careTo look at routes into gang-associated SVE, need to understand routes into gang environmentIs it normalisation or a normative response? Difference known between right and wrongIs normalisation a coping / defensive mechanism or resignation to‘that’s what happens around here’
11A unique phenomenon? Reflects what we know about SVE in general: Perpetrators are predominantly male, victims are predominantly female;It invariably takes place between people who are known to each other; andIt is used as a means of boys and young men exerting power and control over girls and young women.Utilise existing structures/learning – CSE and sexual violence, domestic violence, gangs
12Context: SVE in wider society ‘if we just go down the gang track we miss some real core issues of all young people’ (professional focus group)Lack of understanding re ‘consent’ and ‘healthy’ relationshipsGradients of consent: social context within which consent givenPowerlessness of young women in relationships – ‘ownership’ of femalesNormalisation of SVE and domestic violence in relationshipsContext of social mediaViolent language used to describe sex (battered, banged, beat)Co-presenting problems: alcohol, drugs, mental health issues etc.Victim-blamingLack of understanding as to what constitutes SVE- predominant discourses around masculinity and femininity- confusion around consent and coercion
13Context of gang-associated SVE (1) Gender and gang-associated SVEGendered assumptions about victims and perpetratorsIncidences against young men, but information not forthcomingDifferent conceptualisation of incidences against males/femalesLack of understanding as to what constitutes SVE- predominant discourses around masculinity and femininity- confusion around consent and coercionGradients of consentGender – need to more explicitly probe re males (starting asking specifically re this in interviews) – learning for practice.Sex is about respect and reputation for boysBoys get rated girls get slated/hated – male and female sexuality differently constructed2. Lack of understanding of SVE- Hyper masculine environment – girls achieve status through association.‘not really rape’ – persuade herconfusion for both males and femaleschallenges for professionals if young people do not identify it.3. Have sex with one boy – available to all Gradients of consent – ‘lose right to say no’
14Context of gang-associated SVE (2) Hyper-masculine environmentYoung women viewed in terms of relationships to malesNormalisation of violenceConflict mentalityRelationship between role/status, perceived sexual availability and risk of SVERisk unequally distributed:Relationship – sisters/girlfriends protected within gang but at risk from other gangs. Girlfriends experiencing DV and at greater risk if they try to end the relationship.Those who adopted masculine role at least risk.Links at most risk – viewed as sexual objects; used for sex but generally no protection in return.A sense of Real or perceived sexual availabilityEchoes of Weller’s work on next slide
15Context of gang-associated SVE (3) Roles determined by males; subsidiary status afforded to femalesRisk of SVE varies according to status within the gang environment:Sisters and other female relativesGangster girlGirlfriendsLinksAlso true of malesRisk within the gang & risk from rival gangsDoesn’t usually affect others with no known gang association – different routes in for young people in area/out of area
16‘If she has a name and someone tries to sleep with her and she won’t let them, they know that she’s slept with loads of other people, they’ll force her into it. They would rape her. They would rape her, if you class that as rape, yeah...You’ve got girls like, one girl, I won’t say her name but if you go to [area] and say her name everyone will know her. She’s slept with everyone. Everyone. But it’s got to a point that cos she’s slept with so many people, when people see her it’s more forced onto her ‘Just touch it, man, just do that, just do this’ and then she’ll have to do it cos she’ll be scared’ (21 year old young man, ex-gang involved).Recently youth justice professional told me about a young man given a custodial sentence for rape and he did not know he was doing anything wrong.
17Further risk of SV by girls who challenge violent peer group Additional risk of SV for girls involved in violent peer groupsRisk of sexual violence for all girls and young womenRisk of sexual violence for girls associated with violent peer groups (Weller 2010)Outer circle – broad risks for all girls.Know from other work that high levels of SVE amongst young people generally – 1 in 3 young women and 1 in 6 young men reporting experience of partner sexual violence (Barter et al 2009)ICM poll – confusion around consent and coercionMiddle circle – additional specific risks for girls who associate with violent peer groups – set up chicks, links, holding weapons etc.Inner circle – those who challenge the gender regime or internal rules – ending relationships or ‘snitching’ – may be punished and controlled through SVE.
18In their own words...“I remember a girl. She wasn’t going out with someone but she like used to sleep with just one gang...and this other gang got her in like some, they seen her on the bus, dragged her off the bus, took her to someone’s house or whatever, made her suck all their dicks and all that. Yeah, and videoed it, telling her to say like she’ll piss on someone’s grave and all sorts...and I remember seeing her in like local and all the lads from the area were like switching her and she was like crying like, do you know what I mean? They made me do it, they had a knife to me and everything and I was like, I could tell that she weren’t lying“ (19 year old female)
19In their own words“Cases of pressure in which like a girl will be in a situation where she’s probably with multiple males and they’re all up for it, but she’s not sure how to get herself out of the situation...Come on, you know you want to...They’re ultimately aware that they’re putting pressure on, but like I said, that’s their aim. Like when I said about boys, they want to have sex with as many people as they can. That’s their target. You know can we all have sex with her...they do understand that its not fair but if it goes ahead, then its by her choice because they’re not physically forcing her...If she actually says ‘no, I don’t want to do this’ then it won’t go ahead but if in her head she’s thinking I don’t want to do this, I don’t want to do this but she ends up doing it, then by all means she’s given her consent” (20 year old male)
20In their own words...“She has decided she wants to go and have sex with someone but she may have to face the consequences of having sex with more than one person...She may not like it, she may like it, but that’s just what happens...It’s more common that you hear the girl is raped. She won’t say raped, but that she was taken advantage of or that other people got involved” (18 year old female)“It happens a lot. It could be eight guys and one girl...All having intercourse, taking turns really. More or less treating the girl like a piece of meat. Some of the guys will either give the girls drugs, spike her drug or get her absolutely wasted...I’ve known a girl that that happened to and she’s said ‘I don’t remember it so hey I’m just doing what I’m doing...people look at me as a slag so why not get treated like one” (19 year old female)
21Gang-associated SVE against males “I’ve seen videos of where you know like, there was a phase where the happy slapping was going around, where a group of boys ordered other boys to strip and take their clothes and make them say stuff into the camera, and just leave them there or told them they’ve got to walk home like that” (21 year old female)“I don’t know what they were thinking, but they forced a boy to give them oral sex and they raped him...and everyone in the whole area was like ‘what are you doing’ and now they’re outcasts, and some of them had big names (21 year old male)“I’ve done it to kids before, I’ve been saying ‘go in there, what’s up with you, here’s a girl, I’m finished so you can go in’ and he’s like ‘I’ll go in there in a minute’ and then you notice ‘em, like you can see in their eyes that they don’t want to go in...when I first like a beat a girl and that, I got like not peer pressure but it was like, that was, that was how I ever lost mine innit” (16 year old male)
22Responding: Identification and reporting Low levels of identification and reporting:Gangs systems historically focused on malesLow levels of reporting of sexual violence in generalWhy not report:Resignation to, or normalisation of, such experiences – do not realise there is anything to reportFear of retribution or retaliationJudgment/fear of what others might thinkPrevious negative perceptions of police and other stat. servicesLack of confidence in the ability of police and other statutory services to offer adequate protection following a disclosure
23Responding: current issues Not actively looked for & not on agendaData not collatedSilo response:Gangs work predominantly male focusedSVE work predominantly female focused & CSE services not picking up gang related casesIssue of short term funding & chasing funding streamsLacking longer-term response: ‘they may get immediate support from the authorities...but what about the one year, two year legacy after they’ve reported it and that support has gone away and then they’re left within the same community...having to face the people who they’ve reported on’
24Messages for practitioners – Victimisation and agency Importance of recognising both to offer appropriate responsesUse of violence to ‘de-feminise’Sex and exploitation as ‘survival’Loyalty, love or fear – weapon possession, alibiQuestion of ‘normalisation’ or a continuum of consent may applyUnderstanding the ‘social field’Don’t forget the boys!Young women’s role is complex and variable as both victim and perpetratorWe must not forget the boys!
25‘It seems like girls have to either fight the boys, have sex with them, or not turn up at all.’ Frontline practitioner on the subject of safe spaces for gang-associated young women and girls, Home Office academic roundtable event, September 2012
26‘For me it was like that was my way to keep in with the boys without having to beat them. Like me, I‘m this little Asian girl, what police is gonna think to stop me. I was running stuff from Birmingham to London and back again for time and never got caught, even though I had a record of my own‘
27Further readingBeckett et al (2012) Research into gang-associated sexual exploitation and sexual violence: Interim reportFirmin, C. (2011) This is it. This is my life...OCC (2012) ‘I thought I was the only one. The only one in the world’ OCC Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and GroupsPearce, J. and Pitts, J. (2011) Youth Gangs, Sexual Violence and Sexual ExploitationWeller, N. (2010) ‘Gangs: Don’t you know it’s different for girls?’ MA Thesis (unpublished)See also research published by Race On The Agenda (ROTA) in 2010: The Female Voice in Violence Project
28Email: fiona. factor@beds. ac. uk Tel: 07725 217229 www. beds. ac Tel: