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Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning in everyday lessons.

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1 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning in everyday lessons

2 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Objectives  To identify the key features of assessment for learning in high-quality teaching and learning  To identify strategies for improving assessment for learning Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.1

3 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning – definitions ‘In this paper … the term assessment refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers, and by their students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.’ Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) ‘Assessment for learning involves:  gathering and interpreting evidence about students’ learning; and  learners and their teachers using that evidence to decide where students are in their learning, where they are going and how to take the next steps.’ Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.2

4 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning – key characteristics Assessment for learning:  is embedded in a view of teaching and learning of which it is an essential part;  involves sharing learning goals with pupils;  aims to help pupils to know and recognise the standards they are aiming for;  involves pupils in [peer and] self-assessment;  provides feedback which leads to pupils recognising their next steps and how to take them;  involves both teacher and pupils reviewing and reflecting on assessment data [information]. Assessment for learning: beyond the black box, Assessment Reform Group (1999) Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.3

5 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more? Next half-term ‘have a go’. Step 1 Focus on one or two strategies you have identified on handout 1.3 and use them in a series of lessons. Step 2 After the first few lessons, discuss with a colleague what went well and what didn’t. Step 3 Consider what further support or training might be helpful. (For example, look at the summaries of the other training modules to see if they are directly relevant.) Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.4

6 Key Stage 3 National Strategy The formative use of summative assessment

7 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  To recognise some of the key characteristics of assessment for learning  To show how assessment of learning can contribute to assessment for learning  To recognise the influence assessment has on motivation, self-esteem and learning  To consider the impact of feedback to pupils on their learning  To demonstrate how assessment for learning can actively involve pupils in setting their own individual targets  To plan a series of actions designed to promote developments in assessment for learning Objectives The formative use of summative assessment OHT 2.1

8 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning:  is embedded in a view of teaching and learning of which it is an essential part;  involves sharing learning goals with pupils;  aims to help pupils to know and recognise the standards they are aiming for;  involves pupils in [peer and] self-assessment;  provides feedback which leads to pupils recognising their next steps and how to take them;  involves both teacher and pupils reviewing and reflecting on assessment data [information]. Assessment for learning - key characteristics Assessment for learning: beyond the black box, Assessment Reform Group (1999) The formative use of summative assessment OHT 2.2

9 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Factors that contributed to the pupils learning on the video  Communicating the aims of the lesson clearly to pupils  Making assessment criteria clear and accessible to pupils  Longer wait time during questioning  Oral and written feedback  Pupils required to reflect on their learning using assessment criteria  Balance of self-, peer and teacher assessment  Pupils trained in how to behave cooperatively in group work  Feedback specifing targets for improvement  Different media used to assess pupils so that some can demonstrate their understanding through means other than writing The formative use of summative assessment OHT 2.3

10 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  adapting National Curriculum level descriptions into ‘pupil speak’ to enable clearer feedback on progress in the National Curriculum;  developing regular and planned periodic peer and self-assessment opportunities;  developing class, group and individual target setting. Identify three ways you can carry out assessment for learning using summative assessment in your own subject – for example: Where is the existing good practice in curriculum target setting in your school (using evidence from department audits)? How can this good practice be shared more widely? The formative use of summative assessment OHT 2.4

11 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Planning lessons

12 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Objectives  To clarify the nature of lesson objectives and consider how these may be most effectively shared with pupils  To help teachers prepare simpler and more effective lesson plans Planning lessons OHT 3.1

13 Key Stage 3 National Strategy The importance of sharing objectives with pupils Plans should help teachers make clear to pupils:  lesson objectives (what is taught and learned – what the pupils should know, understand, be able to do, or be aware of as a result of the lesson);  the big picture (the broad purpose of the lesson, which may directly refer to longer-term objectives/targets and how the lesson links to other lessons). Planning lessons OHT 3.2

14 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Writing objectives: useful stems  know that … (knowledge: factual information, for example names, places, symbols, formulae, events);  develop / be able to … (skills: using knowledge, applying techniques, analysing information, etc.);  understand how/why … (understanding: concepts, reasons, effects, principles, processes,etc.);  develop / be aware of … (attitudes and values: empathy, caring, sensitivity towards social issues, feelings, moral issues, etc.). By the end of the lesson pupils will: Objectives may also focus on how pupils learn. Planning lessons OHT 3.3

15 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Key elements of good lesson plans Good lesson plans are brief but usually have:  lesson objectives which can be shared with pupils;  a clear structure for the lesson;  brief notes on key questions and teaching points;  brief notes on specific activities;  brief notes relating to needs of individuals or groups (for example, SEN or G&T);  a note of how any additional support will be used;  reference to subject issues, for example developing vocabulary;  references to relevant resources;  an indication of any homework to be set. Planning lessons OHT 3.4

16 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  As a department, review and, if appropriate, revise the planning format for lessons to ensure that it addresses the key elements of lesson planning in a manageable way.  Revise a week’s lesson plans to ensure there is a clear focus on objectives and an indication of the evidence needed to demonstrate what pupils have learned.  Question pupils during the lessons to check that: (a) they understand the lesson objectives; (b) they can explain how they will know when they have achieved them.  Make sure that objectives are referred to during plenaries.  Try different ways of introducing lesson objectives, for example through whole-class discussion, whole-class questioning, writing them on the board, providing them on cards. Planning lessons OHT 3.5

17 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Questioning

18 Objectives  To develop teachers’ self-awareness and analysis of their own questioning techniques  To identify key features of good questioning  To enhance the planning for, and use of, questions  To identify relevant skills and plans for professional development (related to questioning) which teachers can then pursue Questioning OHT 4.1

19 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Importance of questioning Questioning is a critical skill for teachers because it is:  the most common form of interaction between teacher and pupil;  an element of virtually every type and model of lesson;  a key method of providing appropriate challenge for all pupils;  an important influence on the extent of progress made;  the most immediate and accessible way for a teacher to assess learning. Questioning OHT 4.2

20 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Purposes of questioning  To interest, engage and challenge pupils  To check on prior knowledge  To stimulate recall and use of existing knowledge and experience in order to create new understanding and meaning  To focus thinking on key concepts and issues  To extend pupils’ thinking from the concrete and factual to the analytical and evaluative  To lead pupils through a planned sequence which progressively establishes key understandings  To promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation and the formulation of hypotheses  To promote pupils’ thinking about the way they have learned Questioning OHT 4.3

21 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pitfalls of questioning  asking too many closed questions;  asking pupils questions to which they can respond with a simple yes or no answer;  asking too many short-answer, recall-based questions;  asking bogus ‘guess what I’m thinking’ questions;  starting all questions with the same stem; It is easy to fall into the trap of: Questioning OHT 4.4a

22 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  pursuing red herrings;  dealing ineffectively with incorrect answers or misconceptions;  focusing on a small number of pupils and not involving the whole class;  making the sequence of questions too rigid;  not giving pupils time to reflect, or to pose their own questions;  asking questions when another strategy might be more appropriate. Questioning OHT 4.4b Pitfalls of questioning It is easy to fall into the trap of:

23 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Bloom’s taxomony of questioning  Knowledge  Comprehension  Application  Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation Questioning OHT 4.5

24 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Effective questioning  reinforces and revisits the learning objectives;  includes ‘staging’ questions to draw pupils towards key understanding or to increase the level of challenge in a lesson as it proceeds;  involves all pupils;  engages pupils in thinking for themselves;  promotes justification and reasoning;  creates an atmosphere of trust where pupils’ opinions and ideas are valued; Effective questioning: Questioning OHT 4.6a

25 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  shows connections between previous and new learning;  encourages pupils to speculate and hypothesise;  encourages pupils to ask as well as to ‘receive’ questions;  encourages pupils to listen and respond to each other as well as to the teacher. Questioning OHT 4.6b Effective questioning Effective questioning:

26 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  Use a tape or video recorder to record a whole-class question-and- answer session. Replay the tape to help you to evaluate the different aspects of your own questioning. You may find it useful to focus upon whether: – you asked too many questions; – you had a balance of open and closed, high- and low-order questions; – you encouraged opinion, informed speculation and tentative answers; – you handled incorrect answers effectively; – you provided thinking time.  Begin to build key questions into your lesson planning.  In a departmental meeting discuss how you might plan sequences of questions that build up pupils’ understanding of important concepts. Questioning OHT 4.7

27 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Explaining

28 Objectives  To demonstrate the significance of explaining as a teaching skill  To show how teachers can analyse the quality of explanations  To demonstrate the principles of planning explanations Explaining OHT 5.1

29 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Types of explanation  Concepts  Similarities and differences  Cause and effect  Purposes  Processes Explaining OHT 5.2

30 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Characteristics of explanations  Keys  The ‘tease’ or hook  Use of voice and body  Signposts  Props  Humour  Examples and non-examples  Connections to pupils’ experience  Questions Explaining OHT 5.3

31 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more? Possible next steps are:  more deliberate (and perhaps collaborative) planning of explanations;  observation or video recording of explanations so that they can be analysed, reflected upon and improved;  studying pupils’ work for signs of things that are not well understood, so that particular areas can be targeted for better explanations. Explaining OHT 5.4

32 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Modelling

33 Objectives  To illustrate modelling as a teaching strategy  To consider and evaluate some examples of modelling  To show how modelling can help pupils to use skills and processes independently Modelling OHT 6.1

34 Key Stage 3 National Strategy When learning a new skill it helps to:  see somebody do it;  hear somebody thinking aloud about what they are doing and why;  hear somebody explaining what they are doing as they go;  be able to ask questions about the process as it is happening;  slow the process down to look at what is happening and ask questions;  see the process demonstrated visually;  make time to discuss what has been done. Modelling OHT 6.2

35 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Why model?  To show how something is done  To make best use of the teacher’s expertise  To induct pupils into new skills and understanding  To give pupils an insight into the principles and concepts that lie beneath new skills and techniques  To scaffold learning by supported, structured activity  To help pupils on the way to independence Modelling OHT 6.3

36 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Video  What skills, processes or procedures were being modelled?  How did the modelling make explicit the thinking and decisions behind the task?  How did the teachers ‘scaffold’ the learning following the modelled activity in order to move the pupils towards independence? Modelling OHT 6.4

37 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Diamond ranking  The purpose of ‘diamond ranking’ is to provoke discussion or reflection about the relative importance of a range of factors. It encourages a focus on the single most important factor, then the next two most important, the next three and so on.  In your group of four, select nine cards and agree on their relative importance. Arrange them as follows: Most important Least important Modelling OHT 6.5

38 Key Stage 3 National Strategy What does effective modelling involve?  ‘Thinking aloud’ and being totally explicit about the thinking process  Showing precisely how  Making visible and explicit the ‘structure’ of the process, concept or knowledge  Breaking down the process into a series of manageable steps  Encouraging pupils to think for themselves or to ask their own questions  Encouraging pupils to contribute  After modelling, scaffolding the learning through shared or guided activities  Building in time for pupils to reflect on the process  Enabling pupils to do it independently Modelling OHT 6.6

39 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  Choose a skill, task or technique from your subject and try modelling it for pupils.  Consider how you might use pupils as experts to model as an alternative to the teacher.  Plan a range of activities which will help pupils to make a bridge from modelling to being able to use the skill or process independently. Modelling OHT 6.7

40 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Starters

41 Objectives  To promote the use of a range of starter activities as a means to create purposeful beginnings to lessons  To develop an understanding of the range of different starters available to introduce lessons Starters OHT 7.1

42 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Starters  fulfil a wide range of purposes, in particular using prior knowledge to introduce new topics;  develop early levels of engagement and motivation;  help to get all pupils quickly on task and to inject a sense of pace and challenge;  are an alternative to commencing with a whole-class question-and- answer routine; Starters OHT 7.2a Starters:

43 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  create a level of challenge which is dependent upon: – prior learning; – level or order of thinking; – management of pupil response;  create an expectation that pupils will think and participate in the lesson;  create a climate of interaction and involvement;  create a sense of purpose in a part of the lesson which can be derailed by administrative and organisational tasks. Starters OHT 7.2b Starters Starters:

44 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Overcoming problems with starters  careful planning and preparation;  establishing a clear focus and dealing decisively with distractions;  rigorously adhering to planned timings;  using a variety of starter activities over time;  using activities and routines which latecomers can quickly assimilate and join (for example, the initial task in the starter is explained briefly on a card which can be picked up and read by each pupil as they enter the classroom even if they arrive late); Starters OHT 7.3a Problems can be overcome by:

45 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  skilful teacher questioning, coupled with an insistence on thinking time;  providing additional support for some individual pupils (for example, use of classroom support);  adding extra challenge for some by, for example, increasing the complexity or sophistication of the activity. Starters OHT 7.3b Overcoming problems with starters Problems can be overcome by:

46 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Some keys to successful starters  Plan the starter as a discrete element of the lesson.  Ensure that each element contributes directly to the overall lesson objectives.  Choose a type of starter that best meets those lesson objectives.  Take account of the range of learning needs of the group.  Plan for the activity to be brief and keep to your planned timings.  Make sure that your starters show progression over time.  Keep instructions clear and concise.  Deal with diversions and red herrings decisively.  Use varied and unusual routines to create motivation.  Plan for a brief conclusion at the end of the starter to consolidate the gains made.  Talk to colleagues in other subjects to exchange ideas. Starters OHT 7.4

47 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  Trial three different types of starter that you have not used before.  Use your experience as a basis for a detailed departmental discussion about the possible inclusion of starters in the next unit of Year 7 work to be planned.  Ensure that the discussion includes active sharing of strategies that teachers already use or that they have heard other teachers talk about. (Module 8 ‘Plenaries’ also contains ideas that can be used as starter activities.)  In a department meeting in about eight weeks’ time, discuss the starters that team members have tried and the responses from pupils.  Add a list of potential starters to your departmental planning documentation. Starters OHT 7.5

48 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Plenaries

49 Objectives  To develop an understanding of the value and significance of plenary sessions  To promote the use of a range of plenary sessions as a vital and integral element of all lesson types Plenaries OHT 8.1

50 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Characteristics of plenaries Plenaries:  draw together the whole group;  summarise and take stock of learning so far;  consolidate and extend the learning;  direct pupils to the next phase of learning;  occur at strategic moments in the teaching sequence;  often occur at the end of lessons but can occur at other points in the lesson;  highlight not only what pupils learn, but how they learn;  help determine the next steps in learning. Plenaries OHT 8.2

51 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Purposes of plenaries  help pupils to crystallise, understand and remember what has been learned;  refer back to the learning objectives;  create a sense of achievement, gain and completion;  take stock of where the class has reached in a task or a sequence; Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range of purposes. In particular they: Plenaries OHT 8.3a

52 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  take learning further and deeper;  provide an opportunity for the teacher to assess learning and plan accordingly;  recognise and value the achievements of individuals and the class;  prompt deep thinking by pupils about how they have learned. Plenaries OHT 8.3b Purposes of plenaries Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range of purposes. In particular they:

53 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Other uses of plenaries Plenaries can also help teachers as they seek to:  develop and instil a habit of reflection about/on learning;  stimulate interest, curiosity and anticipation about the next phase of learning;  help pupils to change what they have learned into a form which they can communicate;  draw out applications of what has been learned;  highlight and change misconceptions which have developed;  highlight progress made and revise personal or group targets;  develop assessment for learning;  help develop pupils’ perception of themselves as learners. Plenaries OHT 8.4

54 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Video analysis How does the teacher help pupils to:  plan, monitor and reflect on their learning?  appreciate the value of their thinking?  summarise their learning?  make good progress? Plenaries OHT 8.5

55 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  In a departmental meeting view the two video sequences from this module and use handout 8.5 as an agenda for discussion.  Discuss the strategies illustrated and share ideas about how they can be applied in your subject. You may find it helpful to use module 7 ‘Starters’ for other ideas that can be used in plenary sessions.  Agree on five strategies that you will trial and introduce them over a four- week period.  Discuss how each of those strategies can be used to maximise pupil progress.  Share the pupil responses with colleagues in a further meeting. Plenaries OHT 8.6

56 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Challenge

57 Objectives  To explore what is meant by ‘challenging learning opportunities’  To explore how challenge supports learning  To explore how teachers can make challenging tasks achievable  To consider how challenge can be built into lessons Challenge OHT 9.1

58 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Key aspects of challenge  Challenge is a prerequisite of learning.  Getting the level of challenge right is crucial.  Self-confidence and self-belief are necessary to meet learning challenges.  Challenge needs to be realistic.  Challenge in classrooms needs to be anxiety-free.  Mistakes need to be accepted as an important part of learning.  Effective learners take risks.  The higher the motivation, the higher the tolerance of frustration during learning.  Success depends upon receiving support when it is needed.  Support should encourage independence in the learner. Challenge OHT 9.2

59 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Increasing the level of challenge  Expect greater independence.  Increase pace.  Encourage metacognition and self-review.  Increase proportion of higher-order questions.  Widen the range of sources used by learners.  Introduce texts of greater density and abstraction.  Demand greater precision in language.  Expect pupils to justify answers.  Provide more opportunities to transform and apply new ideas.  Provide more open-ended, problem-solving tasks. Challenge OHT 9.3

60 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Making challenging tasks achievable  Affirm success and effort.  Prompt reflection on learning strategies.  Encourage risk taking.  Set high expectations.  Use targets and goals based on prior attainment.  Use rewards to build learning stamina.  Break challenge down into small, achievable steps.  Monitor progress and intervene early.  Provide feedback. Challenge OHT 9.4

61 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  Identify the key objectives that underpin development in a unit of work that you teach. Then analyse the demands of its tasks in relation to Bloom’s taxonomy. Revise the unit, if appropriate, to include a variety of more demanding tasks.  Undertake paired peer observation of a lesson from the unit. Use the checklist created at the end of this session to explore the features of practice that support challenge. Devise an action plan to address any areas for development identified. Challenge OHT 9.5a

62 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  In subject teams take a scheme of work from Key Stage 3 and collect three sample pupil outcomes for the same task, representing different levels of ability. Identify the key differences between the pupil outcomes and discuss appropriate targets for each pupil. Agree the incremental steps that each learner needs to take to achieve those targets and how they might be supported. Make this a regular feature of team meetings. Challenge OHT 9.5b Ready for more?

63 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Engagement

64 Objectives  To understand the factors that influence pupil motivation and involvement in their learning  To explore a range of strategies to increase pupils’ involvement in their learning Engagement OHT 10.1

65 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Tackling motivation and engagement  Schools and teachers can have a significant impact on pupils’ engagement and motivation.  Some action can be implemented in the short term: other action requires long-term implementation.  All action needs to be planned, monitored and reviewed. Engagement OHT 10.2

66 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Instructions for activity 2  read and discuss each statement;  arrange the statements into groups that you think show common features;  use the blank cards on which to write titles for each group;  use blank cards to record additional statements;  select the three most important features of classroom practice which support pupils’ engagement with their learning; (These can be drawn from any of your groups – there doesn’t have to be one from each.)  discuss why these three are the most important. You have been given a series of statements that describe features of teaching and learning which are likely to promote pupils’ engagement. In pairs: Engagement OHT 10.3

67 Key Stage 3 National Strategy When are pupils more likely to be engaged in their work?  they are clear about its purpose because the work has been well explained;  the work builds on their prior attainment; they are able to do the work but find it challenging;  they are emotionally, physically and intellectually involved by the tasks set;  the presentation, variety and structure of the work and activities generate curiosity and interest;  they have opportunities to ask questions and try out ideas;  they can see what they have achieved and how they have made progress;  they get a feeling of satisfaction and enjoyment from the work. Pupils are more likely to be engaged in their work when: Engagement OHT 10.4

68 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Approaches to improving levels of engagement  the physical state of the pupil;  the emotional state of the pupil;  the learning style of the pupil;  the pupil's prior attainment and knowledge. To create an effective climate for learning, we need to think about: Engagement OHT 10.5

69 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  Try out some of the strategies shown in the video or listed on the handouts and report back to a departmental meeting.  Review a unit of work to assess whether it offers opportunities to work across a range of learning styles.  At a departmental meeting, analyse a range of lesson plans to identify opportunities for access by pupils with different learning needs and styles. Group the lesson plans according to the learning needs and styles that they seem to favour. Resolve disagreements about categorisation by exploring the key activities of the lesson that led to the categorisation. End the session by agreeing possible adjustments to the plans to provide access to a fuller range of needs and styles. Engagement OHT 10.6

70 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Principles for teaching thinking

71 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Objectives  To consider how teachers can develop the skills of independent thinking in their pupils  To introduce teachers to the principles for teaching thinking Principles for teaching thinking OHT 11.1

72 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Extract from the National Curriculum foreword The focus of this National Curriculum, together with the wider school curriculum, is therefore to ensure that pupils develop from an early age the essential literacy and numeracy skills they need to learn; to provide them with a guaranteed, full and rounded entitlement to learning; to foster creativity; and to give teachers discretion to find the best ways to inspire in their pupils a joy and commitment to learning that will last a lifetime. (p. 3) Principles for teaching thinking OHT 11.2

73 Key Stage 3 National Strategy What is outstanding performance? Some common responses  Seeing patterns in data  Making links with other topics or areas  Thinking laterally  Being creative  Generalising  Solving problems  Checking and refining solutions  Seeing different viewpoints  Using existing knowledge  Knowing a lot  Having a good memory  Fast processing of information  Working with others Principles for teaching thinking OHT 11.3

74 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Points for discussion of handout 11.2  What do you feel are the key points outlined?  What type of thinking is common in your subject?  What implications are there for your own practice? Principles for teaching thinking OHT 11.4

75 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Thinking together

76 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Objectives  To consider talk as a tool for thinking and learning  To evaluate and understand ways that pupils talk together in joint activities  To consider how pupils can be helped to talk and reason together most effectively Thinking together OHT 12.1

77 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Talk enables us to:  share information and experience;  build and maintain social relationships;  provide guidance;  think together. Thinking together OHT 12.2 Objectives

78 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Transcript 1: Writing a jingle In a Year 7 music lesson, Luc and Christina are composing a ‘jingle’ on the keyboard for an advertisement and writing it using musical notation. Luc is writing down the music as Christina plays it. Christina: Just write in the next note. Luc: You’ve got to get it on there. (Points to keyboard) Yes that’s you. Let’s just have a listen to it. Christina: You’ve got to let me get some ideas in sometimes. Luc: You’re playing it! Thinking together OHT 12.3a

79 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Christina: Well you can do some, go on. Luc: (Writing) In a minute. Christina: (Mumbles something under her breath) Luc: You’re playing. (Hums a bit of tune) Christina: You can play that. Luc: Why don’t you do it? Christina: No, because you should. Thinking together OHT 12.3b Transcript 1: Writing a jingle

80 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Transcript 2: A Viking invasion The group is working with a computer simulation of the Viking invasion of England. In the role of a Viking raiding party, these Year 6 pupils are considering a set of options for action, displayed on the screen, which include: A: build shelter; B: hunt for food; C: set up defences; D: hide the boat; E: find slaves; and F: raid monastery. Diana: (Reading options for action off screen) ‘Place in order of importance.’ Paul: ‘Set up defences’. I choose ‘set up defences’. Then there’s a place to hide behind Thinking together OHT 12.4a

81 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Diana: Wait, why do you want...? Adrian: Because then we’re safe. Paul: Because then we’re safe aren’t we? Diana: Yes, but suppose someone spots our boat. Adrian: Oh no! Paul:OK, what about defences? Say we get attacked and can’t hide the boats. Then what would happen? Thinking together OHT 12.4b Transcript 2: A Viking invasion

82 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Diana: What do we do if we run out of food? Paul: I’d say we put ‘find slaves’ last. (Paul had earlier suggested that this should have high priority.) Diana: We can’t find the slaves until we’ve raided, I sort of think. Paul: Yeah. I’d say D first (that is, the option ‘hide the boat’) then B and C, A and F. Which do you reckon we should go for then? Diana: I think we should do D first, cos it’s a risk. Paul: (turning to Adrian) Do you agree with that? Thinking together OHT 12.4c Transcript 2: A Viking invasion

83 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Adrian: Yes. Paul: But say we get attacked while hiding the boats. Diana: It shouldn’t take that long to hide the boats though would it? Paul: Well there’s four of them, they’re quite big. OK. Press D then. (Adrian presses and they go on to discuss the rest of the sequence.) Thinking together OHT 12.4d Transcript 2: A Viking invasion

84 Key Stage 3 National Strategy What kind of talk do we want?  When you ask pupils to work and talk together, what sort of talk do you wish to take place?  If you had to compile a list of up to five rules that pupils should follow in order to talk together effectively, what would your rules be? Thinking together OHT 12.5

85 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Exploratory talk In exploratory talk:  pupils and teachers engage critically but constructively with each other’s ideas;  contributions build on previous comments;  relevant information is offered for joint consideration;  there is speculation;  pupils give reasons for their views and seek them from others; Thinking together OHT 12.6a

86 Key Stage 3 National Strategy ‘It is an effective way of using language to think …the process of education should ensure that every child is aware of its value and be able to use it effectively … However, observational research evidence suggests that very little of it naturally occurs in classrooms when children work together in groups.’ Mercer, N. (2000)  reasoning is visible in the talk. Thinking together OHT 12.6b Exploratory talk

87 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ground rules for talk Everyone should:  be actively encouraged to contribute;  offer opinions and ideas;  provide reasons for their opinions and ideas;  share all relevant information;  feel free to disagree if they have a good reason;  ask other people for information and reasons;  treat other people’s ideas with respect;  try to come to an agreement; and …  change their minds if they are persuaded by good reasoning. Thinking together OHT 12.7

88 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Using ground rules for talk  Should pupils be taught how to talk together effectively in your school? Why / why not? If so, when and how? – In Year 7 or later? – As a ‘stand alone’ activity or as part of subject teaching?  What difficulties would there be in trying to pursue this?  How could these be addressed? Thinking together OHT 12.8

89 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more?  Build group talk into your lesson plans.  Raise pupils’ awareness of talk.  With colleagues, plan a coordinated approach to talk.  Use ICT as a resource for encouraging exploratory talk. Thinking together OHT 12.9

90 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Reflection

91 Objectives  To understand the importance of pupils reflecting on learning  To identify a vocabulary of useful thinking and learning words for foundation subjects Reflections OHT 13.1

92 Key Stage 3 National Strategy The importance of reflection  Reflecting on learning helps thinking and learning.  Reflection is particularly important when tackling challenging tasks.  Thinking about learning is hard without words.  Opportunities for reflection need to be planned.  Reflection promotes skills needed both for tests and for meeting challenges in everyday life. Reflections OHT 13.2

93 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Advantages of awareness of learning  Independent learning requires the learner to be able to monitor and regulate their learning.  Knowing more about learning makes it less of a mystery and affects confidence and self-esteem.  Reflection helps generalising about learning.  Generalising helps to transfer learning and helps pupils to make connections between subjects. Reflections OHT 13.3

94 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  Identify thinking words for your subject, which are appropriate for your pupils.  Display some thinking words on A4 pieces of paper, complete with definitions, and, after a suitable activity, allow pupils to choose words which match their mental processes.  Plan opportunities to develop the use of these words in plenaries. Identifying and using thinking words Reflections OHT 13.4a Developing reflection and metacognition

95 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Developing reflection and metacognition  Model some thinking processes and label your mental processes for pupils.  Encourage pupils to think and talk about thinking processes and strategies they might use before they tackle a problem.  Encourage them to identify occasions when they use particular processes out of school.  Give pupils opportunities to think and talk about their work in small groups before they are asked to contribute to whole-class discussion.  Give pupils learning logs to record their thoughts on what and how they have learned. Reflections OHT 13.4b

96 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Big concepts and skills

97 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Objectives  To identify some principal concepts and skills in foundation subjects  To understand how the concepts may contribute to improved understanding and motivation  To consider the importance of principal concepts and skills to curriculum planning Big concept and skills OHT 14.1

98 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Big concepts and learning  to provide pupils with the ability to see patterns in new learning situations, tasks and problems;  to provide a foundation for assisting pupils in transferring their learning;  pupils to become more independent and motivated learners. A knowledge of principal concepts in foundation subjects can help: Big concept and skills OHT 14.2

99 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Thinking processes during the drawing task: questions to reflect upon  Did you draw as you listened or did you wait for pauses?  Which of your symbols represent concrete phenomena and which represent abstract ones?  Did you get visual images in your head? Where did they come from?  What happened when you did not have to draw?  What parts were difficult to make sense of?  Did drawing the border and labelling the two countries provide a useful structure? Big concept and skills OHT 14.3

100 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  ‘Doing this made me understand more what listening is about. Listening is more than having your ears open … your brain has to work as well.’  ‘The pictures in your head, I get a lot of those and now I try and use them, like try to see things in pictures. You remember them better.’  ‘It made me realise why I don’t understand teachers sometimes. When you hear a load of hard words, like the hassiender [hacienda] bit, you switch off because it is too hard. But it’s not your fault, it’s more the teacher, so I do ask more questions when I don’t understand.’ Big concept and skills OHT 14.4a Pupils’ comments on the task

101 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  Drawing the symbols was really good. We kept thinking “How do you draw that?” and made you think what it was about. We compared our symbols and I could see how my partner had got different things out of it.’  ‘It made me really tired doing that. It made me concentrate so hard, it seemed like it went on for hours. I want to do it with my Mum to see if she can do it.’ Big concept and skills OHT 14.4b Pupils’ comments on the task

102 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Classification of intended learning outcomes  Modular  Longitudinal  Background Big concept and skills OHT 14.5

103 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ready for more? In curriculum analysis and planning:  analyse the first pages of the programmes of study and some GCSE examination papers to identify critical skills in making sense of information and solving problems;  similarly, analyse documents for underlying concepts, which may be implicit as well as explicit;  analyse pupils’ work or examination scripts to identify what lower- achieving pupils are failing to do or understand;  provide staff with opportunities to reflect upon the skills and concepts which constitute the essence of the subject and which characterise the work of the more successful;  make such concepts and skills explicit in schemes of work and plan tasks which aim to develop understanding of them. Big concept and skills OHT 14.6a

104 Key Stage 3 National Strategy In teaching:  make principal concepts and skills more explicit in introductions and plenaries – such as strategies for listening for gist and detail, using visual representations for summarising;  encourage pupils to reflect on how tasks have been done to make the strategies and skills they have used more explicit;  provide opportunities for self-assessment, especially in relation to skills;  make connections between topics and where possible to other subjects – long- and short-term causes provide a framework that can be used in understanding geography, RE or English literature just as much as in history. Big concept and skills OHT 14.6b Ready for more?


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