Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Industrial Ergonomics"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Industrial Ergonomics BMFP 3553 Industrial Ergonomics
2BMFP 3553 Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course the student should be able to:Describe human physical abilities and limitations;Apply ergonomics principles to create safe, healthy, efficient and effective activities in the workplace;Evaluate the effectiveness of the work system that they have designed;Design a work system by taken into consideration human capabilities and limitations.
3Today’s objective: Understand the concept of ergonomics Be able to describe ergonomic risk factors
4Ergonomics DefinedEarly 1700’s, Ramazzini’s study of ill-effects of poor posture & poorly designed tools on the health of workersGreek Words “Ergon = work, Nomikos = law”Ergonomics Study of Work Laws
5What Is Ergonomics? Modern Definition Science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population
6Brief History of Ergonomics Ramazzini (1700) - Ramazzini realized that a variety of common workers’ diseases appeared to be caused by prolonged irregular motions and posturesOccupational injury and disease has existed since the beginnings of “work”.Around , institutions were founded in Britain foroccupational medicine
7Brief History of Ergonomics 1857 – Jastrzebowski from Poland – treatise on “An outline of ergonomics or Science of Work”1949 – the term “Ergonomics” was coined by Murrell in USA. In USA, the field is known as “human factors”.
8What Is Ergonomics? Ergon – work Nomos – laws of Ergonomics is the laws of work that define the limits to human capability.
9What Is Ergonomics?Ergonomics is the science of improving employee performance and well-being in relation to thejob tasks,equipment, andthe environment.Ergonomics is…a continuous improvement effort to design the workplace for what people do well, and design against what people don’t do well.
10What Is Ergonomics?Ergonomics is fitting the job to the person.
11Applying Ergonomics Study, research, & experimentation Evaluate human traits/characteristics we need to know for engineering designApplication & engineeringDesign tools, machines, shelter, environment, work tasks, and job procedures to fit and accommodate the human
12Ergonomics Human Machine Work Environment Utmost Goal: “Humanization” of WorkDesign with “E & E”: Ease and Efficiency
18Human Machine SystemsEffectors : hands feet and voice ( things that make physical activity possible)Senses : hearing, seeing, touching, and tastingCentral processor : brain = process info that comes from our senses
20Ergonomic Risk Factors RepetitionEx: Assembly Line workDoing the same thing over and over againThousands of keystrokes typingHours of filing, day after dayStamping dozens of papersFrequent liftingRepeated motions with computer mouse
21Ergonomic Risk Factors Forceful exertionsLifting heavy weightsExerting too much force to operate something
22Ergonomic Risk Factors Awkward postures refer to positions of the body (limbs, joints, back) that deviate significantly from the neutral position while job tasks are being
23Ergonomic Risk Factors Contact Stress : results from occasional, repeated or continuous contact between sensitive body tissue and a hard or sharp object.
24Static posturesStatic postures (or "static loading") refer to physical exertion in which the same posture or position is held throughout the exertion.Why are static postures bad? Static postures will impede the flow of blood that is needed to bring nutrients to the muscles and to carry away the waste products of muscle metabolism.Examples of static postures : 1) gripping tools that cannot be put down,2) holding the arms out or up to perform tasks,3) standing in one place for prolonged periods.
25TEMPERATURECold environments impair sensory and motor function, reduced manual dexterity and accentuates symptomsHot environments promote fatigue, overwhelms the body’s ability to deal with heat.Extreme cold causes the small blood vessels in the extremities to constrict. The blood circulates more slowly and stagnation results.
26VIBRATIONContributes to circulatory, skeletal, and neurological impairment and fatigueCan be local, such as:Use of hand toolsCan be whole body, such as:Riding in truckOperating jackhammer, floor buffers...etcVibration stimulates muscle contractionReduces tactility. Tactility will affect the amount of force exerted on the object.
29CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS!! ADD IT ALL UP ---CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS!!
30MECHANISMS OF INJURY DEVELOPMENT Increased tendon length Inflammation and pain Tissue remodeling and scarring Decreased structural integrity Soft tissue and bone destructionSustained muscle contractionRepetitive motionsAwkward posturesNeurovascular disordersCompression of nerves and arteries on hard surfacesVibrationSustained muscle contraction, repetitive motion and awkward postures
31Summary Define ergonomics according to your understanding. What is “awkward posture”?List down THREE of the ergonomic risk factors.