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Introduction to Industrial Ergonomics

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1 Introduction to Industrial Ergonomics
BMFP 3553 Industrial Ergonomics

2 BMFP 3553 Course Objectives
Upon successful completion of this course the student should be able to: Describe human physical abilities and limitations; Apply ergonomics principles to create safe, healthy, efficient and effective activities in the workplace; Evaluate the effectiveness of the work system that they have designed; Design a work system by taken into consideration human capabilities and limitations.

3 Today’s objective: Understand the concept of ergonomics
Be able to describe ergonomic risk factors

4 Ergonomics Defined Early 1700’s, Ramazzini’s study of ill-effects of poor posture & poorly designed tools on the health of workers Greek Words “Ergon = work, Nomikos = law” Ergonomics Study of Work Laws

5 What Is Ergonomics? Modern Definition
Science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population

6 Brief History of Ergonomics
Ramazzini (1700) - Ramazzini realized that a variety of common workers’ diseases appeared to be caused by prolonged irregular motions and postures Occupational injury and disease has existed since the beginnings of “work”. Around , institutions were founded in Britain foroccupational medicine

7 Brief History of Ergonomics
1857 – Jastrzebowski from Poland – treatise on “An outline of ergonomics or Science of Work” 1949 – the term “Ergonomics” was coined by Murrell in USA. In USA, the field is known as “human factors”.

8 What Is Ergonomics? Ergon – work Nomos – laws of
Ergonomics is the laws of work that define the limits to human capability.

9 What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is the science of improving employee performance and well-being in relation to the job tasks, equipment, and the environment. Ergonomics is… a continuous improvement effort to design the workplace for what people do well, and design against what people don’t do well.

10 What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is fitting the job to the person.

11 Applying Ergonomics Study, research, & experimentation
Evaluate human traits/characteristics we need to know for engineering design Application & engineering Design tools, machines, shelter, environment, work tasks, and job procedures to fit and accommodate the human

12 Ergonomics Human Machine Work Environment
Utmost Goal: “Humanization” of Work Design with “E & E”: Ease and Efficiency


14 The Basics of Ergonomics



17 Applications of Ergonomics
Anatomy Orthopedics Physiology Medicine Psychology Sociology Anthropometry Biomechanics Work Physiology Industrial Hygiene Management Labor Relations Industrial Engineering Bio-Engineering Systems Engineering Safety Engineering Military Engineering Computer-Aided Design PG 8, Kroemer

18 Human Machine Systems Effectors : hands feet and voice ( things that make physical activity possible) Senses : hearing, seeing, touching, and tasting Central processor : brain = process info that comes from our senses

19 Ergonomic Risk Factors
Repetition Awkward postures Excessive force/Forceful exertions Vibration Static postures Contact stress Extreme temperatures

20 Ergonomic Risk Factors
Repetition Ex: Assembly Line work Doing the same thing over and over again Thousands of keystrokes typing Hours of filing, day after day Stamping dozens of papers Frequent lifting Repeated motions with computer mouse

21 Ergonomic Risk Factors
Forceful exertions Lifting heavy weights Exerting too much force to operate something

22 Ergonomic Risk Factors
Awkward postures refer to positions of the body (limbs, joints, back) that deviate significantly from the neutral position while job tasks are being

23 Ergonomic Risk Factors
Contact Stress : results from occasional, repeated or continuous contact between sensitive body tissue and a hard or sharp object.

24 Static postures Static postures (or "static loading") refer to physical exertion in which the same posture or position is held throughout the exertion. Why are static postures bad? Static postures will impede the flow of blood that is needed to bring nutrients to the muscles and to carry away the waste products of muscle metabolism. Examples of static postures : 1) gripping tools that cannot be put down, 2) holding the arms out or up to perform tasks, 3) standing in one place for prolonged periods.

25 TEMPERATURE Cold environments impair sensory and motor function, reduced manual dexterity and accentuates symptoms Hot environments promote fatigue, overwhelms the body’s ability to deal with heat. Extreme cold causes the small blood vessels in the extremities to constrict. The blood circulates more slowly and stagnation results.

26 VIBRATION Contributes to circulatory, skeletal, and neurological impairment and fatigue Can be local, such as: Use of hand tools Can be whole body, such as: Riding in truck Operating jackhammer, floor buffers...etc Vibration stimulates muscle contraction Reduces tactility. Tactility will affect the amount of force exerted on the object.




Increased tendon length Inflammation and pain Tissue remodeling and scarring Decreased structural integrity Soft tissue and bone destruction Sustained muscle contraction Repetitive motions Awkward postures Neurovascular disorders Compression of nerves and arteries on hard surfaces Vibration Sustained muscle contraction, repetitive motion and awkward postures

31 Summary Define ergonomics according to your understanding.
What is “awkward posture”? List down THREE of the ergonomic risk factors.

32 THE END!!

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