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1 Planning & Optimising the Green IT Datacentre: Design, Operation & Management Best Practices, Technologies & Challenges Pierre Ketteridge, IP Performance.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Planning & Optimising the Green IT Datacentre: Design, Operation & Management Best Practices, Technologies & Challenges Pierre Ketteridge, IP Performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Planning & Optimising the Green IT Datacentre: Design, Operation & Management Best Practices, Technologies & Challenges Pierre Ketteridge, IP Performance Ltd Green IT Business Transformation Seminar

2 2 Yes! Of course… …but only with careful planning, design and management! Introduction

3 3 The direct carbon impact (ie Carbon Footprint) of Data Centres on the environment is almost exclusively related to power consumption Data Centres do not (when properly designed and managed) vent hot air or polluting gases into the atmosphere – cooling should be a ‘closed system’ There may be indirect carbon impacts through staffing levels, travel to and from site, operational maintenace and housekeeping Introduction

4 4 Power Distribution IT Components Cooling 50% 40% 10% …Lighting accounts for 1-3%, dependent on whether LO operation is implemented or not Introduction 15% of business power consumption is accounted for by Data Centres & ICT…

5 5 Cooling falls into two categories: Air Cooling Liquid (water) Cooling Cooling

6 6 Air Cooling The traditional way of cooling a Data Centre Computer Room: CRAC (Computer Room Air Conditioner) Water Chiller Cold Aisle/Hot Aisle Configuration Cooling> Air Cooling

7 7 Inherent limitations of CRAC-based Air Cooling Systems: CRAC capacity needs to be 30% greater than the actual demand Limitations in cooling (5kW – 7kW per rack) N+1 active equipment resilience/redundancy drives efficiency of cooling system down further Cooling> Air Cooling

8 8 Some Easy-to-Implement Air Cooling Optimisation Suggestions: Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle Arrangement Cold Aisle Containment Blanking Panels Raised Floor Brush Strips Underfloor, Inter- and Intra-rack Cable Management Free Air Cooling Cooling> Air Cooling

9 9 Cooling> Air Cooling> Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle With no hot aisle/cold aisle arrangement, returning heated air mixes with the CRAC-cooled air and cooling to the DC CR equipment is impaired. There is also the issue of bypass cold airflow, which can impact chiller operation. With a hot aisle/cold aisle arrangement, chilled air is forced out into the front-of-cabinet facing cold aisles, across the equipment surface, and warm air is channeled out into the rear-of- cabinet facing hot aisle for return to the chiller/CRAC.

10 10 Cooling> Air Cooling> Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle Ineffective positioning of CRACs impair the airflow around the DC CR. CRACs along the side walls are too close to the equipment racks, and will cause the airflow to bypass the floor vents in those cold aisles. Place cooling units at the end of the equipment rows, not mid-row. CRACs should be aligned with the hot aisles to prevent hot/cold aisle airflow crossover, which apart from increasing the temperature of air supply to the rack fronts but also can trigger the cooling unit to throttle back, reducing cooling overall. Limit maximum cooling unit throw distance to 50'

11 11 Separation of High-density Racks Cooling> Air Cooling> Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle Air cooling systems become ineffective when high-density racks are co-located “Borrowing” of adjacent rack cooling capacity is not possible in this configuration An alternative (other than self-contained cooling) is to spread out high-density racks to maintain the cooling averages Obviously this is not always practical – witness the prevalance of blade server and virtualisation technologies – two to five times the per rack power draw of traditional servers

12 12 Cooling> Air Cooling> Cold Aisle Containment Cold Aisle Containment Very simple to deploy / Retrofit Hot and cold aisles physically separated Greater watts per rack approx 10kW Over sizing of the CRAC is reduced CRAC efficiency is increased due to a higher delta T CRAC fan speed can be reduced which provides: - Reduced running costs - Increased MTBF

13 13 Cooling> Air Cooling> Blanking Panels Reduction and stabilization of equipment air-intake temperatures Elimination or reduction of the number and severity of hotspots Increased availability, performance, and reliability of IT equipment, especially in the top one-third of the equipment cabinet Elimination of exhaust air recirculation within the cabinet, optimising cooling and reducing energy consumption and OpEx Deferral of CapEx (additional cooling capacity) The potential of greening the data center by reducing its carbon footprint

14 14 Raised Floor Brush Grommets Cooling> Air Cooling> Raised Floor Brush Strips Self-sealing and interwoven closure system Brush grommets can be installed as DC is commissioned, or retro-fitted No changes to existing wiring configuration Fits into the raised floor tiles prior to cabinet installation Simple Inexpensive Cable openings allow approx. 60% of conditioned air to escape Use brush grommets to seal every cabling entry point Increases static pressure in the under-floor plenum - ensures that the DC airflow remains at a pressure above atmospheric Extend reach of Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle system

15 15 Cable Management – Intra-rack, Inter-rack and underfloor Airflow within racks is also affected by unstructured cabling arrangements Deployment of high-density servers creates new problems in cable management Cut data cables and power cords to the correct length – use patch panels where appropriate Equipment power should be fed from rack-mounted PDUs Raised floor/subfloor plenum ducting carries other services apart from airflow: –Data cabling, power cabling, water pipes/fire detection & extinguishing systems Remove unnecessary or unused cabling - old cabling is often abandoned beneath the floor – particularly in high churn/turnover Co-Lo facilities Spread power cables out on the subfloor - under the cold aisle to minimize airflow restrictions Run subfloor data cabling trays at the stringer level in the hot aisle - or at an “upper level” in the cold aisle, to keep the lower space free to act as the cooling plenum Cooling> Air Cooling> Cable Management

16 16 What is Free Cooling? Cooling> Air Cooling> Free Air Cooling

17 17 Average UK Temperatures Cooling> Air Cooling> Free Air Cooling

18 18 Budgetary Example – Projected Cost of Running the System for a Year Not using the Free Cooler Chiller Capacity 150 kW Energy needed to run the chiller 62 kW Numbers of Hours running per year 8784 Cost per kWh £0.0784 Total Cost of Running per Year £42,697.00 100% free cooling 70% of the year Chiller capacity150 kW Energy needed to run the chiller 62 kW Numbers of hours running per year 2580 Cost per kWh£0.0784 Cost of running the chiller £12,540.00 Cost of running Free Cooling (10.4kw) £ 5,058.00 Total Cost of Running per Year £17,599.00 Cooling> Air Cooling> Free Air Cooling

19 19 When going above 10kW per rack a new, more targeted/directed cooling method is required Most common methods is Water Cooling Cooling> Liquid Cooling High Density Data Centres and Liquid Cooling

20 20 So What is Liquid – or Water – Cooling? Cooling> Liquid Cooling Delivery of chilled water to multiple heat exchange points from a central unit The central unit circulates water from the buildings existing chilled water loop Heat exchange units in rear doors (one per cabinet, capacity 30kW) or side doors (2 x dual cabinet resilience, 2 x 15kW) Heat is carried away in the water - air is ejected back out into the DC at the same temperature it entered the rack - zero thermal footprint

21 21 Why Use Water Cooling? Cooling> Liquid Cooling Water 3,500 times more thermally efficient than air Air cooling only delivers 5-7kW of cooling per rack (10kW with hot aisle/cold aisle arrangement) High Density DCs place increasing power and thermal control demands on the infrastructure Blade servers - up to 80 servers in a standard 42u cabinet – and anything from 80 to 800 virtual machines! Fully-loaded blade server rack can produce 25Kw of heat Water Cooling can deliver 30kW of cooling to a fully- loaded 42u rack

22 22 Adding the benefits of Free Cooling, some CapEx/OpEx implications of Water Cooling: Water cooling has a slightly higher install cost (more terminations/ pipe work)…but greater kW per sq ft gives us… –35-45% reduction in required real estate –15-30% reduction lower in overall construction costs –10-20% reduction on total annual fan power consumption –12-14% reduction in power delivered to mechanical chilled water plant For an average efficiency data centre, annual savings of £22,000 and £80,000 for small and large data centres respectively Significant when the design life of the data centre is 10 years Reduction in energy is a reduction in costs and also a reduction in your carbon footprint Cooling> Liquid Cooling

23 23 Active Equipment (Networking) Switches Routers Appliances –Load balancers –Caching/Proxying –Bandwidth Management –Application Acceleration & Optimisation Network Components

24 24 Data Centre Switch Requirements Port density Performance Functionality Feature set Resilience/Redundancy Security Price Power consumption/Heat output Network Components> Ethernet LAN Switches Feeds & Speeds Capabilities

25 25 Data Centre Switch Requirements Network ComponentsNetwork Components> Ethernet LAN Switches High port density per chassis Low power consumption Availability High performance Low latency Optimised for the environment Optimised for the application

26 26 Network ComponentsNetwork Components> Ethernet LAN Switches

27 27 Ethernet Switch Power Consumption - A Comparative Example: 15,000 User Network Network ComponentsNetwork Components> Ethernet LAN Switches Across an installed network base of 15,000 ports, it was possible to save 102 kW/h, resulting in: Lower Power Consumption Less Cooling Equipment Smaller Batteries Smaller Data Centers

28 28 Routers Network Components> WAN Routers Look at power consumption figures/thermal output Deploy shared WAN architecture – MPLS, VPLS, IP VPNs Investigate leveraging and integrating bandwidth optimisation and application acceleration technologies

29 29 LAN/WAN Optimisation Appliances Network Components> Appliances> Load Balancing …an area where we can make a difference, in the way in which technologies are deployed to optimise LAN/WAN bandwidth usage and availability of back- end servers. An excellent example would be application delivery, traffic management and web server load balancers: High Performance through acceleration techniques High Availability

30 30 More LAN/WAN Optimisation Options… DPI Bandwidth Management solutions: Inspection, Classification, Policy Enforcement and Reporting on all traffic: –Identification - application signature, TCP/UDP port, protocol, source/destination IP addresses, URL –Classification – CoS/ToS (IP Prec/Diffserv CodePoint/DSCP); user-defined QoS policy –Enforcement based on user-defined policy –Reporting – RT and long-term – extremely valuable for SLAs/SLGs in DC environments Network Components> Appliances> DPI Bandwidth Management

31 31 LAN/WAN Optimisation Options (cont’d) WAN optimisation and application acceleration: Usually deployed as a reverse proxy device Provides some form of bandwidth management Protocol optimisation – making LAN protocols more latency-tolerant – eg. TCP handshake spoofing Object caching –Files, videos, web content, locally cached and served Byte caching –Repetitive traffic streams, hierarchically indexed and tagged (inline only) Compression –(inline only) Proxy support for common protocols –HTTP, CIFS, SSL (HTTPS), FTP, MAPI, P2P, MMS, RTSP, QT, TCP- Tunnel, DNS etc Network Components> Appliances> WAN Optimisation

32 32 LAN/WAN Optimisation Options (cont’d) WAN optimisation and application acceleration: Reverse Proxy Bandwidth Management Protocol optimisation – for latency-intolerant LAN protocols – eg. TCP handshake spoofing Object caching Byte caching Compression (inline only) Proxy support for all/most common protocols Network Components> Appliances> WAN Optimisation

33 33 Managing the Data Centre Infrastructure Infrastructure Management “Lights Out” operation requires… Little or no human intervention Exceptions: Planned maintenance Fault rectification/management (emergency maintenance/repair) Physical installs/removals Housekeeping (cable management, MAC) Cleaning How are you going to control it? How are you going to manage it?

34 34 Remote Control and Management Infrastructure Management RDC, VNC – In Band Management Console Servers – Out of Band Management KVM switching (local/remote) KVM/IP switching & USB2 VM Remote Drive Mapping IPMI Service Processor OOB Management Intelligent Power Management (iPDUs)

35 35 Infrastructure Management

36 36 Summary - Cooling Data Centre “Greening” is mainly down to managing power consumption Cooling is the biggest consumer of power (50%) Optimise your air-cooled CRAC system: –Cold Aisle/Hot Aisle arrangement –Cold Aisle containment –Blanking Panels –Raised floor/underfloor brush strips/grommets –Free air cooling system Summary

37 37 Summary Summary – Cooling (Cont’d) If deploying high-density bladeservers/virtualisation, consider water-cooling (max kW/hr cooling rises from 5- 10kW/hr to 30kW/hr) Targeted control Even distribution of cooling Full (42u) rack utilisation Zero thermal footprint – design flexibility Remember free air cooling reduces costs further Real Estate savings

38 38 Summary - Active Equipment (Networking) Switches: high port density, low power consumption, PSU disconnect/fanless operation Extrapolate power consumption over entire port count Routers: Modular architecture, high density, low power consumption Make full use of available bandwidth –Shared services: IP VPN, point-to-multipoint or meshed MPLS –Use/honour QoS marking –Deploy Bandwidth optimisation techniques Summary

39 39 Summary - Active Equipment (Networking) – Cont’d Appliances: Load Balancing – Maximise performance, utilisation and availability of server resources DPI Bandwidth Management WAN Optimisation Summary Maximise performance, utilisation and availability of WAN resources

40 40 Summary Summary – Infrastructure Management Remote Infrastructure Control and Management enables “lights-out” operation Remote console management gives CLI access to network infrastructure – routers, switches, firewalls, other network optimisation appliances KVM-over-IP allows remote, distributed control of server and workstation systems Service Processor Management allows remote control and management of system processor and environmental monitors/controls Intelligent Power Management enables remote monitoring, control and management of PDUs, UPS and battery backup resources

41 41 THANK YOU Pierre Ketteridge, IP Performance Ltd Close

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