Presentation on theme: "JAA TGL 10 Explained D J Hawkes UK CAA RNAV in European Terminal Airspace Workshop."— Presentation transcript:
JAA TGL 10 Explained D J Hawkes UK CAA RNAV in European Terminal Airspace Workshop
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 2 of 34 2 Joint Aviation Regulation OPS Operations in areas with specific navigation performance requirements: An operator shall not operate an aeroplane in…specified airspace…where minimum navigation performance specifications are prescribed unless …approved to do so by the authority. JAR OPS
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 3 of 34 3 Joint Aviation Regulations OPS … requires the aircraft to be “…equipped with … navigation equipment in accordance with the requirements of air traffic services in the area(s) of operation”; and “An area navigation system where area navigation is required for the route being flown”. OPS … requires instruments and equipment to be approved.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 4 of 34 4 Guidance Leaflet No. 10 Published by JAA on 1 st November 2000 to support the European P-RNAV strategy. Supplemented by FAQs published April AIRWORTHINESS AND OPERATIONAL APPROVAL FOR PRECISION RNAV OPERATIONS IN DESIGNATED EUROPEAN AIRSPACE
TGL-10 Main Topics P-RNAV System Description Airspace Assumptions Performance Criteria Required Functions Airworthiness Compliance Flight Crew Procedures Flight Manual Crew Training Operations Manuals Database Integrity
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 6 of 34 6 Assumptions- about P-RNAV The design of terminal P-RNAV procedures: is consistent with the relevant parts of ICAO Doc 8168 PANS OPS ; follow the guidelines of EUROCONTROL document NAV.ET1.ST10; is based upon WGS 84 co ‑ ordinates; is validated and shown to be aircraft compatible.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 7 of 34 7 Further Assumptions Fix data is provided on charts to assist integrity checking by the flight crew; NOTAMs for non-availability of a procedure; Where needed to address specific hazards, dual P-RNAV systems is stated in the AIP; The AIP addresses radar service if needed; RT phraseology for P-RNAV has been promulgated; Non ICAO compliant navigation aids are excluded from the AIP, e.g. TACAN.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 8 of 34 8 Aircraft Systems for P-RNAV P-RNAV may be based the following types of sensor to give lateral navigation along a path defined by waypoints from on-board navigation database: –Distance Measuring Equipment using two or more beacons (DME/DME); –Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS); –Co-located VOR/DME provided the requirements of the procedure are met. –Inertial Systems (INS or IRS) with automatic radio updating.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 9 of 34 9 Other Aircraft Systems LORAN C is not an acceptable sensor; VNAV capability is optional; The navigation database may hold TACAN data to supplement DME provided the TACAN beacon meets ICAO Annex 10 Standards and is listed in the AIP.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 10 of System Performance- Accuracy The lateral track keeping accuracy of the on- board P-RNAV system shall be equal to or better than +/- 1 NM for 95% of the flight time. Track keeping accuracy depends on the navigation system error (a combination of path definition error, position estimation error and display error), and the Flight Technical Error (FTE). It corresponds to the accuracy component of RNP-1 and RNP-1 RNAV.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 11 of Meeting the accuracy requirement- GPS For manual flight, a default FTE of 0.8 NM may be assumed (ref. RTCA DO-283, ). For GPS, provided the path definition and display errors are negligible, manual flight using GPS can achieve the required accuracy. For non-GPS cases, positioning error is more significant, so flight director or autopilot is necessary to reduce FTE and to achieve the required accuracy. Also, a suitable map display can reduce FTE.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 12 of RNAV systems using DME/DME and compliant with the 2D navigation accuracy criteria of FAA AC 90-45A, AC (), FAA TSO-C115(), or JAA JTSO-2C115(), can be used for P-RNAV procedures meeting the published criteria without further evaluation of system accuracy. However, compliance with all other criteria of TGL 10 will need to be shown. Meeting the accuracy requirement- DME/DME
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 13 of Evidence of meeting accuracy criteria Options include: A Flight Manual statement; A statement from the aircraft constructor; A statement from the equipment installer; An assessment report. Refer to TGL 10 for acceptable equipment performance standards.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 14 of System Performance- Integrity The probability of displaying hazardously misleading navigational or positional information simultaneously to both pilots shall be Remote, as defined in JAR For P-RNAV in the terminal area, hazardous should be interpreted as involving misleading information without a timely warning and which, in the absence of other cues, is unlikely to be detected by the flight crew.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 15 of Meeting the integrity requirement The integrity requirements applied at initial aircraft build for primary navigation systems are the same as those for P-RNAV, no further investigation is required. Compliance may be claimed on the basis of the original certification. For modified aircraft, a statement should be sought from the equipment installer.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 16 of System Performance- Continuity of Function For the on-board systems, it shall be shown that: The probability of loss of all navigation information is Remote*. The probability of non-restorable loss of all navigation and communication functions is Extremely Improbable*. * as defined in JAR
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 17 of Meeting Continuity of Function criteria In addition to the equipment required by JAR-OPS 1, Sub-part L for IFR flight (or equivalent national requirements), at least one area navigation system is required.
Required Functions for P-RNAV
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 19 of Objectives P-RNAV capability; Appropriate controls and displays to avoid confusion and crew errors; Low crew workload compatible with TMA operations; Monitoring provisions; Failure indications.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 20 of TGL 10 Table 1: Required functions System display requirements; Parameters to be displayed; Use of the navigation database; Auto-tuning and navaid selection; Automatic leg sequencing; Fly-over and fly-by turns; Use of ARINC 424 path terminators; Automatic reversion after primary nav sensor failure.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 21 of Specific issues- Course Selection Automatic course selection slaved to the RNAV computed path is necessary to ensure accurate track keeping with an acceptable crew workload during a complex P-RNAV procedure. Automatic selection will be required for all new installations. If this function is not provided in existing installations, track keeping & crew workload will need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 22 of Specific issues- Deviation Scaling The deviation display shall have a full-scale deflection suitable for the phase of flight and the required track keeping accuracy. Scaling may be set automatically to a default value, or obtained from a database. The full-scale deflection value must be known or made available for display to the flight crew. For P-RNAV operations, a value of ±1 NM is acceptable.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 23 of Specific issues- MAGVAR To ensure accurate navigation, the magnetic variation tables held in the system (e.g. IRS or FMC or Navigation computer) need to be current. Updates should be requested from the equipment supplier.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 24 of Specific issues- Dual Systems and Intermixing of equipment For approach operations, to avoid problems of conflicting methods of operation and conflicting display formats, intermixing of RNAV equipment is not permitted. The following must be consistent: — Units and notation of displayed data; — Display Symbology — CDI scaling; — Databases; — Data entry; — Mode logic; — mode annunciation;
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 25 of TGL 10 Table 2: Recommended functions Parallel offset paths; Autopilot/Flight Director* coupling; VNAV; Automatic runway position update; Additional ARINC 424 path terminators; * May be required to obtain low Flight Technical Error to meet accuracy requirement.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 26 of Airworthiness Compliance- New installations Submit a compliance statement to your authority that shows how the criteria of TGL 10 have been satisfied. Address: –Equipment qualification; –System safety analysis; –Software assurance level; –Performance Analyses; –System failure scenarios; –Human interface; –Autopilot/Flight Director coupling; –Execution of leg types. JAR 25 ACJ 25 hgdfjhgjkdhgkj fvkjfdhvjkhfjk lkjfjkhjjljknjlkn hjuhgdfjhgjkdhg kjfvkjfdhvjkhfjk lkjfjkhjjljknjlkn
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 27 of Airworthiness Compliance- Existing Installations Submit a compliance statement to your own authority that shows how the criteria of TGL 10 have been satisfied. Compliance may be established by inspection of the installed system to confirm the availability of required features and functionality. The performance and integrity criteria may be confirmed by reference to statements in the Aircraft Flight Manual or to other applicable approvals and supporting certification data.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 28 of Aircraft Flight Manual- new or modified aircraft If a description of the installed system with related operating instructions and procedures are available in other approved operating or training manuals, the AFM may need only the following information: –A statement which identifies the equipment and aircraft build or modification standard certificated for P-RNAV operations with an RNP-1 or better capability.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 29 of AFM- Existing aircraft If the AFM or Pilot’s Operating Handbook is unclear about the system capability, the operator has one of the following options: Obtain a Change Sheet or Supplement from the aircraft constructor. Propose an AFM Supplement based on the template shown in TGL 10, Annex E; or Propose an Operational Specification giving information equivalent to that in an AFM.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 30 of Operational Criteria An operational evaluation will need to confirm the adequacy of normal and contingency procedures for the particular equipment installation. Operational approval will be stated in the applicable Air Operator Certificate, or issued in accordance with national procedures, as appropriate.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 31 of Flight Crew Procedures & Training TGL 10 provides advice on: –Pre-flight Planning; –Database checks; –Departure; –Flight progress monitoring; –Arrival; –Contingency Procedures; –Incident Reporting; –Contents of training manuals.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 32 of Navigation Databases The navigation database should be obtained from an approved supplier who has complied with EUROCAE/RTCA document ED-76/DO-200A, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data. Until such approved suppliers become available, as a minimum, the operator must implement integrity checks to verify data relating to waypoints below the applicable minimum obstacle clearance altitude.
RNAV in European Terminal Airspace 33 of Cautionary Note This presentation is a compressed overview of published regulatory material. Delegates should consult the latest publications of national authorities for details of applicable policies, requirements and guidance material. Enquiries relating to the certification of aircraft systems, or to operational approvals, should be made to the applicant’s own national authority.