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Use of the Internet and the Digital Divide Internet and Society 2010 James Stewart, University of Edinburgh

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1 Use of the Internet and the Digital Divide Internet and Society 2010 James Stewart, University of Edinburgh

2 Outline Adoption and Appropriation Non-use Design for use Who uses the Internet? Statistics Social Exclusion Digital Divide  Policy Global DD : Development, appropriation

3 Issues and Ideas Diffusion and the s-curve Studying use and users Appropriation and domestication Non-users Design-use issues. Social Exclusion Digital divide and social exclusion Policy - ‘Digital participation’ Global Digital divide

4 Diffusion and the S-curve Groups of users  Innovators, early adopters, etc Demand-side: Network effects Supply side: Economies of scale S-curve limit National differences Gender differences Generation of techs time Market penetration

5 Internet Penetration

6 Adopter groups Many studies suggesting different groups of adopters. E.g.  Enthusiasts - innovators  Pragmatists  Reluctant  Rejectors Not a Binary division What factors underline these types of categories?

7 Example of analysis

8 Adoption and Appropriation How and why people adopt  Motivations and resources  Voluntary or obliged adoption Why adopt and use innovations? (consumer research)  Functional: they do something practical  Experiental: they provide sensual pleasure  Identity: products provide expression of self identity Social and individual context Network effects  Some innovation have more use as more people have them – slow to start, then much fast uptake a ‘inflection point’

9 Appropriation and Domestication How technologies come into local settings Learning  Formal, informal, learning by doing, community learning Social processes  Local experts, local economy, power User innovation Limiting use, giving up use. Proxy use

10 Non-use of ICT Why people don’t adopt  “Not relevant”,”no use”  “Too complicated”, “too fiddly” Practical, experiential, identity factors  Physical / Cognitive barriers  Subjective reactions  No resources  No motivation  No community  Constrained agency The Enhanced Barrier Model Resource Barriers No access, No money, No time or space, No contact with technology Relevance Barriers Not relevant, No need, Not part of everyday life, Other more important ways of using resources Symbolic and Subjective Barriers Disapprove of technology or industry, Dislike technology, Feel uncomfortable with ICT use, Ignore technology Knowledge Barriers Do not know about the innovation, Do not know how to adopt, how to use, how to cope with problems or how to innovate activities.

11 Non-user strategies  Resistors, Delayers and Rejectors How to overcome the barriers:  ‘Reduce the barriers’  Need triggers to use These come from other changes in life

12 Theory and Design Excluded by design Feminist studies of technology design Design for all  Keyboard, GUI, metaphors, Excluded by policy Use built from most engaging use  Social uses  Entertainment

13 Social trends Independent women ICT families Wealthy young-old Consumer Society Network society Mega-Cities Mobility in work - work rationalisation Migrations (reduced costs)

14 The case of the Internet Use and non-use Non-organisational Sources  OII report/World Internet report  Ofcom  National Statistics  Scottish Statistics  Pew  Eurescom  MORI etc  Eurostat  Eurobarometer

15 Use of internet U SA 79% of adults (Pew May 10) 21% UK 70% (OxII 2009, Ofcom 2009, Nat stat 09)) 30% non-users, 23% never users

16 US figures 2009


18 Frequent users (age groups_

19 Use at least once a week, last 3 months (eurostat 2009)

20 Eurostat

21 European home internet access (Eurostat 2009).


23 Never used the Interne t- Europe 2009 _svg/Eurostat_Map_tin00093_121549378 51_download_tmp_embed.png


25 UK Digital Participation Figures (Ofcom)

26 Household access UK (18.31m 09)

27 Non-ownership of all comms services

28 Non users adopting less

29 Non use (OXII)

30 Use/Adoption Factors Correlates with:  Income  Age and Lifestage  Region  Professional activity  Education  Sex  Ability/Disability  Capital/Wealth  Family with children

31 Age and Socio-economic Profile of home internet 2010 Ofcom

32 Education

33 Involuntary non-use: income and disability

34 Scottish Household Survey: Car availability

35 Gender differences in driving skills (Scotland) SHS quarterly data 2010 s/16002/DataTrendsLicense

36 Proxy Use Have some to ask

37 For those who do have access…

38 Time Spent online The average person spent over 14 hours surfing the internet on a PC or laptop at home in May 2010 (Figure 5.90), equivalent to 27 minutes a day and a 15% increase on the 12.4 hours (24 minutes a day) reported for May 2009 – Ofcom 2010

39 Where access internet (OxII)

40 What do we do online?


42 Communication

43 Uses: Entertainment

44 Ecommerce


46 Viewing user-created video

47 Participation

48 Participation 2

49 Use of SNS

50 “Have you done any of the following things on the Internet in the last year? – Created a profile on a social networking site such as YouTube, MySpace or Facebook?” OxII 2007 In 2009 half of the Internet users (49%) reported having updated or created a social networking profile, up from 17% in 2007

51 Multiple media use

52 Get married

53 Don’t take my TV away!

54 Don’t take away my Facebook (OxII 2007)

55 "misuse of email at work' eDesigns 2002

56 Social Exclusion, Digital Exclusion Digital Participation, Digital Inclusion

57 Social Exclusion Unequal but free agents with opportunity. Dimensions  No access to work/labour market  Consumer  Identity  Community  Citizenship Issues (e.g. Atkinson 1996)  Relative in society  Role of Agency  Dynamics  Individual, family or community

58 Social Exclusion Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD):  income deprivation; employment deprivation; health deprivation and disability; education, skills and training deprivation; barriers to housing and services; living environment deprivation and crime. There are approximately 4.9m people living in the 10% most deprived places in England.21.5% of Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) people live in these areas compared to 8.8% of the white population. On average 39% of the people in these areas experience income deprivation compared to a national average of 14 per cent. 29% of households within these areas are surviving on incomes below £10,000. 12% of all children live in these areas and just over half of these live in households that are income deprived.

59 Social excluded: The Digital Inclusion Landscape in England- Delivering Social Impact through Information and Communications Technology Digital Inclusion Team March 2007

60 Inclusion and Exclusion via ICTs Technical Fix for excluded groups  Work inclusion Provide training for new jobs in the ‘information age’ Tools to find jobs  Community - end isolation New community. Pathways to join local commuities or communities of interenst But Can’t adopt, won’t adopt No money, no skills, no interest, no trust

61 Result-> ‘Digital’ exclusion  Poor Jobs  Limited Government services (esp e-government)  Limited Information (jobs, consumer, politics)  Few Consumer benefits (cost of not shopping online)  Isolation from new culture New excluded groups - older men Digital exclusion intensifies as society and the economy become increasingly based on the Internet

62 Labour market exclusion:Women Exclusion from best jobs Creation of ‘the Internet’ Very low participation of women in engineering and IT professions, especially in ‘West’ But  High in Far East  Media starts to dominate, and female dominated professions  Women in the network society question

63 Problems Access Resources (time, money, experience, social network) Local exclusion Literacy and Skills  Basic literacy  Information age literacy Motivation  Social and individual issues  Life-stage  e.g. identity

64 Ofcom Consumer Panal

65 Policy Social Policy  Unemployment  Social cohesion Industrial Policy  skilled workforce  Consumer market

66 So many policies, so many terms

67 Policy: ‘E-inclusion’, ‘digital participation’ Provide access Provide skills (Euro comp driving licence) Local experts - change agents User friendly spaces - cybercafes, telecentres, computers in hairdressers Free computers+ for whole communities Liberalisation Government-industry partnerships Rely on ‘s-curve’ ‘Thin’ use. Can remove barriers, but not create motivations

68 E-Government problem 1990s-2009s : government committed to diversified service delivery – face to face, mail, internet etc 2009 – Digital Britain plan, economic crisis – government signals move to ‘Internet only’ government services

69 E-inclusion=Social inclusion? Claire Buré paper. Subcultural appropriation Can act as a bridge Can reinforce subcultural and excluded life.

70 Questions Is the digital divide an important factor in social exclusion? What policies can help promote adoption Does technology adoption really lead to social inclusion?

71 Global Digital Divide Development agenda  Centre - periphery, North-South  ‘Development’ model  Black-holes: ‘silent zones’, 4th world Irrelevance of the Internet  To expensive, no electricity, no skills etc  Better things to spend money on: Health, water, food, roads,education  Problem of government control and corruption But  Enabling technology  Leapfrogging

72 Global Digital Divide 2 Donors  Education, telecentres, phone banks Liberalisation  Foreign investment Infrastructure - Mobile phones New markets Industry (outsourcing)  Indigenous economic development Relevant Technology  Mobile phones  Payment systems  Stimulate local innovation

73 Problems and Benefits Socio-cultural issues.  Trust  Local economy and cultural barriers Economic divides  Elites  Still too expensive  Need for sustainability Donor projects Benefits  Bottom up use innovation  Social cohesion in migration  etc

74 Never Catch up Many interlocking issues. Always new technologies Increased commercialisation Are the vanguard opening up the gap? New Society?:  Global elites  Entertainment consumers  Subcultures  Excluded

75 Next Week: Community and Identity Reading:  Feenberg, A., Bakardjieva, M (reading pack)  Darin ch 4, Castells ch 5 Presentations:  Wellman "Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburb"  MMPRPGs/Online worlds Assignments:  Diary of whom and how you communicate.  Blog entry on importance of internet and mobile phone for your social and study life.  Or on your experience of online community

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