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DBA programming component. SQL*Plus Scripting 1 Plus points: Same SQL language as in interactive mode Can test programs interactively first Includes predefined.

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Presentation on theme: "DBA programming component. SQL*Plus Scripting 1 Plus points: Same SQL language as in interactive mode Can test programs interactively first Includes predefined."— Presentation transcript:

1 DBA programming component

2 SQL*Plus Scripting 1 Plus points: Same SQL language as in interactive mode Can test programs interactively first Includes predefined (built-in) functions Fast development possible Rapid prototyping Get results and feedback quickly No cumbersome environment Variable inputs Parameters, substitution, accept

3 SQL*Plus Scripting 2 Plus points (continued) Can have multiple script files Each file created by simple text editor Can have master script file calling others in sequence Or can nest script files more generally scripts can call other scripts (default file type start S6

4 SQL*Plus Scripting 3 Problems with scripts: interpreted each time they are run not verified and compiled optimisation of SQL code done each run time poor performance no control environment procedural actions lacking (case, if, while, for, repeat) no error handling resulting in outright failures or ignoring of messages

5 SQL*Plus Scripting 4 Problems with scripts (continued): Lack of control by business (via DBA -- DataBase Administrator) How do we permit scripts for usage by particular people? Can anyone write a script to do anything they like? If people write scripts themselves to handle business rules how do we know they’ve implemented the rules in the same way?

6 Production Environment Encourages: business rules in one place application of rules then controlled by DBA users need permission to apply rules permission is granted/revoked by DBA Discourages: duplicated, potentially inconsistent, rules access by users to anything they like

7 SQL Procedure An important technique Part of PL/SQL in Oracle Procedural Language/Structured Query Language Part of the SQL standard approximate portability from one system to another Techniques are available for: procedural control (case, if, while, …) parameterised input/output security

8 Oracle PL/SQL Not available in Oracle 8i Lite Available in Oracle 9i at Northumbria Available in Oracle 9i Personal Edition for Windows (XP/NT/2000/98) and linux. c1.4Gb download -- needs Broadband -- 3 CDs Useful guide to PL/SQL: Using Oracle PL/SQL -- Jeffrey Ullman, Stanford University

9 Procedures are First-class Database Objects Procedures are held in database tables under the control of the database system in the data dictionary select object_type, object_name from user_objects where object_type = 'PROCEDURE'; user_objects is data dictionary table maintained by Oracle object_type is attribute of table user_objects holding value ‘PROCEDURE’ (upper case) for procedures other values for object_type include ‘TABLE’, ‘VIEW’ object_name is user assigned name for object e.g. ‘PATIENT’

10 Procedures aid Security Privileges on Tables: Select query the table with a select statement. Insert add new rows to the table with insert statement. Update update rows in the table with update statement. Delete delete rows from the table with delete statement. References create a constraint that refers to the table. Alter change the table definition with the alter table statement. Index create an index on the table with the create index statement

11 Privileges on Tables SQL statement -- issued by DBA: GRANT select, insert, update, delete ON patient TO cgnr2; ‘no grants to cgnr3 for table access’ allows user cgnr2 to issue SQL commands: beginning with SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE on table patient but this user cannot issue SQL commands beginning with REFERENCES, ALTER, INDEX on table patient User cgnr3 does not know that table patient exists

12 Privileges on Procedures The SQL statement GRANT execute ON add_patient TO cgnr3; allows user cgnr3 to execute the procedure called add_patient So user cgnr3 can add patients presumably the task of add_patient but cannot do any other activity on the patient table including SELECT So procedures give security based on tasks powerful task-based security system

13 Writing DBA scripts 7 SQL and SQLplus tricks that work wonders! Chr(10) inserts a newline character Set linesize 600 WHENEVER OSERROR EXIT Use UNIONs to fetch commands from independent queries Use dummy unprinted columns for ordering Use the following Set pagesize 0 (removes page breaks) Headingsset feedback off (removes number of lines) Selectedset recsep off (removes unwanted blank lines) Feel free to tweek settings to get a script to work even if the defaults are ok.

14 What really happens when you start oracle? Create an instance (recreate if present) Physical memory is allocated to System Global Area (SGA) Database is mounted Files are opened (1 is mandatory but more advisable) based on control file settings V$DATAFILE shows db files Db is opened Bootstrap segment is loaded into SGA showing where to find DD tables

15 Data dictionary views and control files Data dictionary views: Use underlying tables owned by SYS Can be queried like other views Number in the hundreds Select * from dictionary Order by table_name;

16 Important DD components Data dictionary views: Cannot be updated Are documented on otn.oracle.com Have a prefix that defines the scope: USER: Views focused on a user’s own objects ALL: Views about objects a user either owns or can query DBA: Views for DBAs only, showing information about all objects in the database

17 Dynamic DD views Dynamic performance views are similar to data dictionary views except: The contents of the views change with database activity They are used mostly for tuning and monitoring Dynamic performance views are prefixed with: V$: Standard dynamic performance view GV$: View spanning multiple instances

18 Useful views Some useful views include: V$SYSSTAT: statistical details about all sessions running on the database V$SQL: Details on individual SQL statements running on the database V$SESSTAT: Information by session to help identify memory usage

19 Physical Storage Management Oracle databases have a number of files assigned – a pool of free space available known as table spaces ONLY table spaces are referenced in SQL commands not file Objects likely to be retrieved from disk at the same time should be on different disks (parallelisation of I/O) – tables held separately from indexes

20 Cont.. Special cases SYSTEM – always created hold dictionary tables. HALLOWED GROUND!!!!!! also need TEMP and ROLLBACK or UNDO

21 Segments, Extents and Blocks Segment is a physical implementation of object – table or index etc Made up from extents – contiguous blocks. Extents are expressed as a number of blocks – elementary storage unit based on OS block size Good DBAs like segments to be composed of small numbers of extents. Looks at DBA_SEGMENTS STORAGE clause determines tables characteristics NEXT parameter determines size of next extent DBA_EXTENTS table PCTINCREASE parameter

22 Frequent errors No more space in table space Not enough contiguous space in table space (DBA_FREE_SPACE shows enough but not in a big chuck) try defragging Max number of extents has been reached by segment

23 User management – the theory Users means oracle accounts Users are created and identified by a password Assigned a default table space and temp space and may be given quotas Need roles to do anything – connect & resource basic ones May need profiles

24 User management – the practice Only 4 types of user DBA Application owner Advanced user Rank-and-file users We will be doing it today!

25 System privileges System privileges allow a user to manage some part of the database system Object privileges allow a user to work with an object. SYSDBA and SYSOPER are system privileges that allow a user to start up and shut down the database, as well as other high-level tasks The CREATE SESSION system privilege is needed to log onto the database

26 Typical privileges Typical object privileges for a table include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE The GRANT and REVOKE commands are used for both system and object privileges Use WITH ADMIN OPTION when granting system privileges to allow the user to grant that privilege to others

27 Cont… A grant made to PUBLIC gives all users the privilege Revoked system privileges do not cascade to other users Use WITH GRANT OPTION when granting object privileges to allow the user to grant that privilege to others Revoked object privileges cascade to other users

28 Cont… Object privileges can be granted on columns The owner of a table can grant object privileges on that table The grantor grants the privilege and the grantee receives the privilege Querying an object without privileges to query causes an error stating that the object does not exist

29 Auditing Statement auditing is the monitoring of activity on a particular type of statement, such as SELECT Privilege auditing audits any command that is authorized by the privilege, such as CREATE TABLE Object auditing generates audit trail records as soon as the object is used, such as with SELECT or DELETE statements

30 Cont.. The SYS.AUD$ table holds auditing records unless the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter is set to “OS” AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS is an initialization parameter that, when set to “TRUE,” causes Oracle9i to audit all activity by SYS or users with SYSDBA privileges BY ACCESS or BY SESSION tell Oracle9i whether to write a record for each occurrence of an audited event or a summary record for the session

31 Cont.. The following clauses limit the writing of audit trail records: WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL and WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL AUDIT_TRAIL is a static parameter, so you must restart the database after changing it A group of data dictionary views shows audit trail records for each type of auditing Use the NOAUDIT command to stop specific auditing activities

32 The mythical rollback segment Temporarily saves previous values when some update go on 2 purposes Enables cancellation of actions (ROLLBACK statement) Concurrent sessions read the data when they access changed tables prior to a commit. Same as other segments

33 Getting the client and server on talking terms Client connection to server needs a listener to broker the connection (not the named listener but the tnslsnr) Only bothered with the instance name (net8 refers to services) Instance name is not enough, needs to know SID and Oracle home where oracle is installed as you may have multiple versions of oracle on one machine (SID_LIST section of the listener.ora file) Can use several listeners, useful if incompatible versions (7.1 & *.x) Listeners created on installation but not always activated


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