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A survey of children, teachers and parents on children’s drawing experience at home and at school Richard Jolley (Staffordshire University, UK) Esther.

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Presentation on theme: "A survey of children, teachers and parents on children’s drawing experience at home and at school Richard Jolley (Staffordshire University, UK) Esther."— Presentation transcript:

1 A survey of children, teachers and parents on children’s drawing experience at home and at school Richard Jolley (Staffordshire University, UK) Esther Burkitt (Open University, UK) Sarah Rose (Staffordshire University, UK)

2 Introduction Much of the psychologist interest in children’s drawings has been in the drawings themselves and the internal processes of the child that underpin the age-related representational changes we see (e.g., Piaget & Inhelder, 1956, 1969). Much of the psychologist interest in children’s drawings has been in the drawings themselves and the internal processes of the child that underpin the age-related representational changes we see (e.g., Piaget & Inhelder, 1956, 1969). This approach neglects the wider context in which the development of children’s drawings takes place. This approach neglects the wider context in which the development of children’s drawings takes place. The attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children themselves play a crucial role in shaping children’s drawing experience and the drawings they produce. The attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children themselves play a crucial role in shaping children’s drawing experience and the drawings they produce. The aim of our study was to ascertain the attitudes and practices from these three key players in children’s drawing experience through the use of surveys and interviews. The aim of our study was to ascertain the attitudes and practices from these three key players in children’s drawing experience through the use of surveys and interviews.

3 Literature Few empirical studies have used surveys and interviews to examine the attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children on children’s drawing experience. Few empirical studies have used surveys and interviews to examine the attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children on children’s drawing experience. Literature has developed with little reference to itself Literature has developed with little reference to itself Small sample sizes Small sample sizes Not addressed some key influential factors on children’s drawing experience, including: Not addressed some key influential factors on children’s drawing experience, including: Do not give a clear picture regarding age-related differences in drawing self-efficacy and enjoyment Do not give a clear picture regarding age-related differences in drawing self-efficacy and enjoyment Children not questioned about the help they receive in their drawing from teachers, parents and other children. Children not questioned about the help they receive in their drawing from teachers, parents and other children. Any difficulties teachers and parents report in supporting their children’s drawing experience Any difficulties teachers and parents report in supporting their children’s drawing experience Opinions on when drawing activity declines, factors that contribute towards the decline, and what should be done about it Opinions on when drawing activity declines, factors that contribute towards the decline, and what should be done about it

4 Methodology Surveys and Participants Three surveys generated (children’s, teacher’s and parent’s surveys) and piloted. Three surveys generated (children’s, teacher’s and parent’s surveys) and piloted. 20 Schools have been visited 20 Schools have been visited 189 children aged 5-14 years have been interviewed (using children’s survey) 189 children aged 5-14 years have been interviewed (using children’s survey) 26 teachers have been interviewed (using teachers’ survey) 26 teachers have been interviewed (using teachers’ survey) 106 parents’ surveys received 106 parents’ surveys received

5 Analysis Content analysis was carried out to generate themes of response for each open-ended question (two independent raters) Content analysis was carried out to generate themes of response for each open-ended question (two independent raters) One rater scored which themes each participant mentioned to each open-ended question, another rater scored 20% of these responses. Inter-rater reliability was above 95% for all themes for all questions. One rater scored which themes each participant mentioned to each open-ended question, another rater scored 20% of these responses. Inter-rater reliability was above 95% for all themes for all questions. Likert-type responses were analysed by percentage per point on the scale Likert-type responses were analysed by percentage per point on the scale Some of responses categorised by Key stage Some of responses categorised by Key stage

6 Amount of Time Children Spend Drawing At Home KS1KS2KS3 5h 14mins 3h 18mins 3h 4mins 5h 14mins 3h 18mins 3h 4mins 8mins -14h 5mins- 15 h 5mins-27h 8mins -14h 5mins- 15 h 5mins-27h

7 Enjoyment of drawing

8 Drawing Self-Efficacy

9 Help from Teachers Help children say they receive: 62 Graphic and spatial demonstrations 62 Graphic and spatial demonstrations 49 Directions and suggestions for improvement 49 Directions and suggestions for improvement 35 Tell the child what to do 35 Tell the child what to do Help the teachers report offering: 12 Set expectations (demonstrations and instruction) 12 Set expectations (demonstrations and instruction) 6 Encourage observational skills 6 Encourage observational skills 5 Encourage realism 5 Encourage realism

10 Help from Parents Help children say they receive: 47 Directions and suggestions for improvement 47 Directions and suggestions for improvement 34 Graphic demonstrations 34 Graphic demonstrations 30 No help required/offered 30 No help required/offered Help the parents report offering: 39 Directions and suggestions for improvement 39 Directions and suggestions for improvement 33 Encourage and build drawing confidence 33 Encourage and build drawing confidence 29 Techniques and skills 29 Techniques and skills

11 Help From Other Children Help from other children: 66 No help offered/received 66 No help offered/received 52 Directions and suggestions for improvement 52 Directions and suggestions for improvement 22 Graphic demonstrations 22 Graphic demonstrations

12 Difficulties in Helping Children Draw Responses from the teachers: 9 Teachers own skill 9 Teachers own skill 9 None 9 None 4 Curriculum pressures 4 Curriculum pressures Responses from the parents: 65 None 65 None 19 Parents own skill 19 Parents own skill 7 Lack of time 7 Lack of time

13 Age Related Decline Age at which decline occurs: Mean years Range years

14 Why does Drawing Decline? Responses from the children: 90 Too busy 90 Too busy 44 Diversifying interests and relationships 44 Diversifying interests and relationships 42 Patience/Boredom/tiredness 42 Patience/Boredom/tiredness Responses from the teachers: 13 Diversifying interests and relationships 13 Diversifying interests and relationships 12 Too busy 12 Too busy 9 Curriculum pressures 9 Curriculum pressures Responses from the parents: 55 Diversifying interests and relationships 55 Diversifying interests and relationships 23 No response 23 No response 21 Too busy 21 Too busy

15 How to Prevent Decline Responses from the children: 47 More time and opportunity for art 47 More time and opportunity for art 39 More help 39 More help 33 Don’t know 33 Don’t know Responses from the teachers: 10 More time and opportunity for art 10 More time and opportunity for art 8 Raising the profile of art in school 8 Raising the profile of art in school 5 More support at home for drawing 5 More support at home for drawing Responses from the parents: 28 More time and opportunity for art 28 More time and opportunity for art 27 No response 27 No response 21 Raising the profile of art in schools 21 Raising the profile of art in schools

16 Conclusions: Issues Relating to the Decline Most children enjoy drawing and have a positive drawing self-efficacy, but less so for the older children Most children enjoy drawing and have a positive drawing self-efficacy, but less so for the older children Age of decline, why it occurs, what's to be done? Age of decline, why it occurs, what's to be done? Time estimations of children drawing at home declines Time estimations of children drawing at home declines Parents and teachers estimate decline around 11 years Parents and teachers estimate decline around 11 years Time pressures: other things that they have to do, other things that they chose to do. Time pressures: other things that they have to do, other things that they chose to do. Need more time for art, raise profile of art in school, children want more help! Need more time for art, raise profile of art in school, children want more help!


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