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Airmanship Knowledge Learning Outcome 1 Air Traffic Control

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1 Airmanship Knowledge Learning Outcome 1 Air Traffic Control
Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Airmanship Knowledge Learning Outcome 1 Air Traffic Control Revision 1.00

2 Airmanship Knowledge Learning Outcome 1 Understand the types of airfield operations used for the control of aircraft

3 Contents Control Towers Controllers Communication Systems
Visual Communications RADAR

4 Air Traffic Control

5 Introduction On RAF Airfields all movements of aircraft, both on the ground and in the air are monitored by Air Traffic Control (ATC)

6 The Control Tower Is always in a prominent position in the aircraft manoeuvring area Houses electronic & radio equipment and may also have a Bird Control Unit

7 The size & design of ATC Towers varies considerably.
The Control Tower The size & design of ATC Towers varies considerably.

8 Aerodrome Controller Is in charge of movements: On the Ground
In the Air Sometimes Called: Airfield Controller Local Controller Movements include: Aircraft Vehicles Pedestrians Is also in charge of aircraft in the circuit, They always work in the control room, with their big glass windows, so they have uninterrupted views of the airfield.

9 Approach Controller They control aircraft: departing the airfield
making instrument approaches Uses RADAR displays, RT and landline communications 1. Controls aircraft departing the airfield circuit and those making instrument approaches. 2. May sometimes provide radar service to aircraft in transit through the area of responsibility of the airfield. 3. As most of the aircraft are out of sight of the field the approach controller does not need a window. 4. Instead he obtains information from RT , landline communications, and Radar displays

10 Runway Controller For more effective control a Runway Controller may be used: At airfields with lots of take-offs and landings They are in direct contact with Aerodrome Controller Caravan is painted in red and white squares, positioned to the left of the touch-down end of the runway in use.

11 Runway Controller The Runway controller can refuse aircraft permission to move onto the runway, land or take-off in some circumstances

12 Runway Controller For example they might:
Prevent an aircraft from landing with its undercarriage retracted by firing a RED flare. Stop an aircraft from taking-off which had for example a panel unlocked or a fuel leak, by showing a steady RED on the signalling lamp.

13 Runway Controller Warn vehicles or aircraft on the ground to move clear of the landing area, by showing RED flashes on the signalling lamp. Give permission to take-off, with a steady GREEN on the signalling lamp.

14 Communication Systems
Good Communications are essential to Air Traffic Control

15 Communication Systems
Swift and accurate contact is achieved through the use of: Special Telephones Tele-Talk Systems Radio Telephony (RT) (Ground To Air) Uses VHF and UHF to talk to aircraft and vehicles. These frequencies provide clear lines of communications. Each airfield and its section have their own frequencies.

16 Visual Communications
Stationary Object Hazard Bad Ground Markers 0.61 Metres square >

17 Visual Communications
Helicopter Operating Areas: The ‘H’ is 4 metres high by 2 metres across It may also have a box around the ‘H’. Well clear of fixed wing aircraft OR

18 Radar Stands For: RAdio Detection And Ranging

19 Radar Consists of a Transmitter and a Receiver
A short pulse energy is transmitted from an aerial and the receiver “listens” for an echo.

20 Radar The receiver detects which reflections are from aircraft, and it can determine their position, direction of travel and speed. This information is then displayed through a cathode ray tube onto a screen. In this way radar has become the “eyes” of air traffic control

21 Radar Aids The two main radar aids likely to be seen at Royal Air Force airfields are: Surveillance Radar Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

22 Surveillance Radar Is used both to monitor air traffic passing through an area and as an airfield approach aid.

23 Surveillance Radar Enables the controller to locate the aircraft and direct it to a position and height near the airfield

24 Precision Approach Radar
The controller has two screens, one for the aircraft’s elevation (height) and one for azimuth (left and right), relating to the approach path

25 Precision Approach Radar
The controller passes instructions by RT to the pilot to guide the aircraft down the correct glide slope towards the touch-down point The procedure is called a Ground Controlled Approach (GCA).

26 Precision Approach Radar

27 Precision Approach Radar
PAR 2000 Radar

28 Radio Aids The two main Radio Aids likely to be seen at Royal Air Force airfields are: Digital Resolution Direction Finding (DRDF) Instrument Landing System (ILS)

29 DRDF It is a common airfield approach aid
It receives an transmission from an aircraft and displays it on a CRT as a green line called a “trace”. Enables the approach controller to tell the pilot what course to fly to reach the airfield Controllers can direct the aircraft to a point above the airfield and from there control its descent through cloud (CDTC) to a height and position on the approach from which the pilot can either land visually or employ a runway approach aid.

30 Instrument Landing System
ILS is a runway approach aid: Fixed transmitters on the ground send out a special pattern of radio signals These define a radio beam that is like a pathway in the sky The pathway then leads to the touch-down point on the runway

31 Instrument Landing System
ILS transmits 2 frequencies 90Hz (aircraft is too high)

32 Instrument Landing System
ILS transmits 2 frequencies 150Hz (aircraft is too low)

33 Instrument Landing System
ILS transmits 2 frequencies No noise = Good glide path

34 Questions?


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