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Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1 Session 3c Applied Physiology – Movement Analysis, Fitness & Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1 Session 3c Applied Physiology – Movement Analysis, Fitness & Training."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1 Session 3c Applied Physiology – Movement Analysis, Fitness & Training

3 Analysis of movement (including planes and axes) Shoulder and elbow action in – Push-ups Over-arm throwing Forehand racket strokes Hip, knee and ankle action in: Running Kicking Jumping Squats Types of joint, articulating bones, joint actions Main agonists and antagonists Types of muscle contraction: isotonic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric related to the sporting actions.

4 Understanding & Analysing Movement Planes of Movement Axes of the body Frontal Sagittal Transverse Longitudinal Axis Transverse or horizontal axis Jan05Q5 Kick

5 Understanding & Analysing Movement Type of movement Description Type of movement Description Flexion Decreasing angle between 2 bones Extension Increasing angle between 2 bones Adduction Towards mid line of body AbductionAway from mid line of body Circumduction Movement of bone makes cone RotationBone rotates around own axis Supination Face up e.g. palms face up PronationFace down Eversion Sole of foot outwards at ankle InversionSole of foot inwards at ankle Dorsiflexion Raising toes towards tibia Plantarflexion Pointing of the toes

6 Understanding & Analysing Movement Construct a movement sequence using the following in the correct order:- Abduction, flexion, inversion, circumduction, supination, adduction, plantarflexion, extension, eversion, rotation, dorsiflexion, pronation

7 Agonists and Antagonists Agonist – Prime Mover Muscle or muscle group mainly responsible for a movement Antagonist Muscle or muscle group that acts to produce the opposite action of the agonist

8 Types of Muscle Action Isotonic Isometric Constant length (no movement) Concentric (shortening under tension) Eccentric (Lengthening under tension) Isokinetic Constant speed of movement

9 Movement Analysis Plane & Axis Joint Type Bones in joint Joint Action AgonistAntagonistContraction Type

10 Levers Three classes of levers Examples of the use of levers in the body Relationship of levers to effective performance – mechanical advantages and disadvantages and range and speed of movement.

11 Levers - Types 1st Class 2 nd Class 3 rd Class

12 Levers – Mechanical Disadvantage Work = Force × Distance MA tells how much the lever magnifies effort M Ad > 1 occurs if effort required less than load M Ad < 1 occurs if effort required greater than load

13 MA - 1 st class lever Effort & resistance act on opposite sides of axis It is the most versatile of the lever systems – Depending on effort arm distance can lift a large resistance or act at a small distance to move the resistance a greater distance effortresistance effort armresistance arm axis M Ad either > or or < 1 or = 1 (dependent upon axis)

14 MA - 2 nd class lever Forces act on one side of the axis M Ad always > 1 (effort is always less than the resistance) effort Resistance arm axis Effort arm The effort must always move a greater distance than the resistance

15 3 rd class lever Forces act on one side of the axis M Ad always < 1 (effort always greater than the resistance) axis Resistance efforteffort arm Resistance arm Muscle pulls point of application through small arc Distal portion of the lever moves through large arc Large range of motion and speed of distal portion Jan03Q1Tennis Ans

16 Applied Exercise physiology in practical situations Principles of training – specificity, progression, over-training, overload, reversibility and tedium FITT principles Calculating work intensity for optimal gains through heart rate and Borg scale, weights – one rep max Fitness testing – reasons for testing Principles of maximal and sub-maximal tests Limitations of testing, specific test protocols, issues relating to validity and reliability. Physiological and psychological value of a warm-up and cool-down Types of stretching exercises, active, passive, static and ballistic. Principles of safe practice Training methods – continuous, intermittent, circuit, weights, plyometrics and mobility training. Explanation of the principles of each method, specific examples, advantages and disadvantages.

17 Fitness Questions - Exams What is it? When do I use it? How do I test it? How do I improve it?

18 Fitness Training Considerations Performer’s needs – base line Fitness components of activity Training principles Training methods Training year - major competitions

19 Training principles (1) Specificity – relevant to task – energy system, body area, movement Progression – more intensity/ frequency/ duration Over-training – insufficient rest is harmful Reversibility – Lose quicker than you gain Tedium – variety, repetition is boring

20 Training principles (2) – F.I.T.T. F – frequency (per day/week) I – intensity (% of max) T – time/duration T – type/mode (continuous/intermittent)

21 Continuous training Continuous running, swimming, rowing or cycling - trains aerobic system - develops endurance Sub-maximal work Higher intensity – anaerobic systems Based on % of max HR (HR Zones)

22 Determining intensity Lactate sampling Heart rate – Karvonen formula [(max HR - resting HR) x 0.6] + resting HR – Heart rate training zone Training pace/intensity - % of maximum

23 Heart rate zones Measured as a percentage of maximum heart rate Maximum heart rate (220 - age) Unfit – train at 50-70% of max HR Fit – train at 70-90% of max HR

24 Borg Scale – rate of perceived exertion

25 Intermittent training Periods of work and recovery Adjust frequency, duration, intensity and recovery period Blocks of work = ‘sets’ Sets composed of repetitions Number of repetitions/intensity of the exercise –link to recovery interval – energy system Circuit training, weight training, shuttles

26 Circuit training A series of exercises performed one after the other – the circuit Each exercise exists at a ‘station’ Consecutive stations designed to stress different muscle groups Or different aspects of fitness - spread the fatigue. Usually designed to last minutes Normally laps of the circuit, Rest interval decided between laps and/or stations.

27 Strength Training programs that are concentric-only / eccentric-only do not yield as much strength gains as combined – because concentric contraction may use different motor units than eccentric contraction – because we are not able to maximally contract eccentrically (we are lengthening muscle) – delayed-onset muscle soreness

28 METHODS Uphill running, riding Sand/shallow water running Weighted vest running/jumping Towing (sled, tire, parachute etc)

29 Strength plyometrics or “pre-loading” – eccentric-concentric sequence – muscle performs more positive work during concentric contraction – storage of elastic energy – altered cross-bridge attachment – more calcium release – activation of larger, stronger motor units

30 PLYOMETRICS Eccentric contraction (landing) Stretch-Shorten Cycle Stretch Reflex Elastic energy stored Concentric – take off

31 PLYOMETRICS Stretch-Shorten Cycle Stretch Reflex eccentric-concentric sequence muscle performs more positive work during concentric contraction storage of elastic energy altered cross-bridge attachment more calcium release activation of larger, stronger motor units

32 Fitness – flexibility Move joints through a wide range of movement (ROM) Most activities because of need to stretch to reach Limits to movement – bones, ligaments, muscles and tendons Sit and reach test, goniometers

33 Stretching Active Involves voluntary muscle contractions to achieve stretch Stretch held for seconds Relax muscle of end of range Passive Use external force to increase range achieved – partner, gravity, body wt Forcibly increase range achieved

34 Stretching - PNF Best way of increasing flexibility Hold stretch for 6 seconds Stretch reflex inhibited Isometric contraction Increase stretch

35 Training Overload

36 Fatigue Theory of Supercompensation

37 Under-Training

38 Fitness Testing Reliability Variables accounted for/controlled If test is repeated should give same result Validity Actually measures what it claims Tests for each component Name, describe, component, limitations Ethical Considerations Health and safety, tests to destruction Limitations Relationship of component to activity/game situation. Inter-relationship of components Maximal - Sub-maximal

39 Maximal and sub-maximal tests Sub-maximal – exercise to less than maximal and extrapolating results (heart rate) to estimate maximal values Maximal – exercise to exhaustion – need high motivation Maximal – exercise to exhaustion – need high motivation

40 Direct and indirect tests Indirect involves estimating VO 2 max – by measuring heart rate Most concerned with cardio-respiratory endurance/stamina - VO2 max Direct involves measuring VO2 max

41 Physiological tests Heart Rate Pulse taking is cheap and simple Pulse meter more accurate and less distracting; doesn’t require performer to stop Respiration  Use breath volume bags (Douglas bags) linked to one-way valve to measure vital capacity  Maximum expiration into the bag following a maximum inspiration

42 Predictive tests Maximum heart rate corresponds to exercise at a maximum workload Heart rate is related to workload over a range of exercise intensities Use heart rate measures to estimate maximum heart rate/workload Step Tests – protocol, step height cadence etc. Simple but outmoded

43 Multistage shuttle run test Predicts VO 2 max 20-metre shuttles using tape-recorded timing; progressive; maximal; accurate; large groups Maximal – requires motivation; favours runners

44 PWC 170 cycle ergometer test Measures aerobic fitness/stamina Standardised workload undertaken – heart rate measured Three workloads/heart rates taken Data extrapolated to find workload achievable at heart rate of 170bpm Accurate – measurement of both HR and workload

45 Wingate power test 30 seconds of all out cycling to determine anaerobic power Workload calculated according to weight Number of revolutions counted for every 5 seconds of test Graph produced of power against time Accurate – measurement of both power and time

46 Objective, Subjective Tests Objective tests provide quantifiable measures of performance - (metres/seconds/runs/points) Subjective tests provide judgments about quality of performance – no units

47 Skill Testing Validity Testing skills in isolation? Reliability Testing skills in performance situations? Objectivity Measured success/outcomes the same as skilful play? Subjectivity Can you judge skilful play without measuring? Jan03Q5 Ans

48 Warm Up Improves oxygen delivery via blood flow Improves chemical reactions for energy Sensitises nerves and improves conduction Movement rehearsal Reduces injury Blood flow to heart

49 Cool Down Disperses waste products Reduces DOMS Reduce blood pooling –dizziness Slows heart rate Active recovery 5-10 minutes light exercise Static stretching 5-10 minutes


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