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For a named volcanic event, compare the primary and secondary impacts (6)

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Presentation on theme: "For a named volcanic event, compare the primary and secondary impacts (6)"— Presentation transcript:

1 For a named volcanic event, compare the primary and secondary impacts (6)

2 Kobe, Japan 1995 and Port-au-Prince, Haiti 2010 Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes

3 Why is the ground shaking? Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes  Can you predict an earthquake?  What have tectonic plates got to do with earthquakes? Epicentre Focus Plates try to move past each other building up pressure. Fault Plates overcome friction and give way, releasing energy. Earthquake waves (seismic waves) travel in all directions.

4 Shallow vs. deep and location Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes Where will the most severe damage be caused?

5 What does magnitude mean? Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes The power of an earthquake (how much the ground shakes) is its magnitude. A Seismometer measures the earthquake using the Richter scale.

6 Seismometer Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes

7 The Richter scale Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes Damage begins but deaths are rare. Lots of devastation and deaths Huge devastation A magnitude 6.0 earthquake is 10 times more powerful than a magnitude 5.0 (logarithmic scale)

8 Earthquake quiz Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes 1. What is an earthquake? a) When a plate subducts below another; b) A plate that overlaps another; c) A sudden release of energy 2. How are earthquakes measured? a) Using a Seismometer b) Using a Thermometer c) Using a Hydroprop 3. An earthquake starts at the: a) Epicentre b) Focus c) Fault

9 Earthquake quiz Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes 4. How is the power of an earthquake measured? a) By its magnitude b) By the VEI scale c) Using the Richter scale 5. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake releases the same energy as: a) A rocket launch b) A nuclear bomb c) A volcano

10 Effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes  Earthquakes and volcanoes are good examples of tectonic hazards  Hazards pose a threat but not all are hazardous  Depends on a number of factors a)The type of hazard b)The places vulnerability c)The ability or capacity to cope and recover from the hazardous event  If you don’t live near a volcano you are not likely to be affected by lava flows  But you could be affected by volcanic ash  Capacity – absorb and recover from the natural hazard  Japanese increase their capacity to cope with earthquakes, drills  Compared to a slum in the developing world

11 Kobe, 1995 and Haiti, 2010 Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes Examine the primary and secondary effects of both earthquakes:  Highlight the effects on people and property  Explain why although the magnitude was similar the earthquakes had very different causes and effects.

12 Exam question Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes Using an example(s) describe the effects of earthquakes on people and property (4)

13 Answer Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes

14 Homework – The formation of a tsunami Learning outcomes: MUST: describe the causes of contrasting earthquake hazards, including shallow vs. deep and magnitude. SHOULD: investigate the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes COULD: examine the different impacts on property and people during the Kobe, 1995 and Port-au-Prince 2010 earthquakes Using a diagram explain and number the stages in the formation of a tsunami


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