Presentation on theme: "What Happened Once The Wall Came Down? Aim: To describe the role of the USA and the UN once communism collapsed. Starter 1.Look at the two maps. 2.What."— Presentation transcript:
What Happened Once The Wall Came Down? Aim: To describe the role of the USA and the UN once communism collapsed. Starter 1.Look at the two maps. 2.What are the differences between the two? 3.When do you think these maps are from? 4.Why do you think they’re different?
Put simply... East and West Germany had been reunified in 1990. Revolutions against communist governments happened in satellite states across Eastern Europe. Boris Yeltsin, an anti-communist, was elected in Russia in 1991. Soviet republics became independent, the USSR was no more. A coup to put Gorbachev back into power in 1991 failed - Communism in Russia was dead. After the collapse of the USSR, the USA was by far the strongest country in the world both militarily and economically. The USA was the worlds only superpower. Copy/Summarise these notes in your books
Throughout the 1990’s the USA’s military budget made up a third of the entire worlds military spending. The USA also had the strongest economy in the world throughout the 1990’s, while Russia struggled in the wake of the collapse of communism Task What is source A suggesting about America in the 1990’s? Remember! You need to say what the source is suggesting AND how it is doing this. Source A
The USA had spent the last 50 years in the self appointed role of defender of democracy, using its military and economic power to defeat communism and create a world order that was the most beneficial to the USA. After the collapse of communism the USA was left to find itself a new role in the world order. In pairs or threes discuss what the role of the USA should have been now communism was defeated. Where possible think of reasons and give evidence for your ideas. Nothing – it should leave other countries to make their own decisions?? Protector of Democracy – it’s the strongest country and has a duty to help others?? Elimination of Terrorism – it’s the strongest and has the best record for democracy, it has a duty to fight terrorism?? Arbiter of World Peace – the USA is stronger than other countries, so it has a duty to get involved, even when not asked?? Protector of the Environment??
Using the information sheet, answer the question below in your books. Use the success criteria to help you write your answer. After the collapse of Communism, the USA wanted to continue in its role of ‘defender of democracy’ across the world. How far do you agree with this statement? Success Criteria 1.Make a decision. e.g. Yes, the USA tried to position itself as the ‘defender of democracy’ in the post cold war world. 2. Give evidence for your point. e.g. In 1994 the USA intervened in Haiti in an operation called ‘Operation Defend Democracy’. 3.Explain how your evidence links to your point. e.g. This demonstrates that the USA believed that its superior military power and economic strength meant that it had a duty to defend democratic freedoms across the world, even when the threat isn’t communism. 4. Give the alternative point of view. e.g. However the USA met with limited success in their ‘defences of democracy’. 5. Give evidence and explanations. 6. Come to an overall conclusion which you explain.
Sum up the role of the USA after the Cold War in one sentence
The USA: A Champion of Democracy The USA’s military and economic strength gave it a lot of power to get involved in disputes around the world. In the 1990’s the USA tried to be a force for freedom and democracy in the world. In 1990 – 1991 the USA supported demands for Iraq to withdraw from its invasion of Kuwait and led the UN coalition which successfully drove out Iraqi forces. After the break up of Yugoslavia there was a violent civil war and genocide in Bosnia, the USA led a NATO bombing campaign over 1994 and 1995 which helped end the conflict. In 1992 – 1994 the USA led a UN force trying to bring peace and stability to Somalia which was suffering from a chaotic civil war, however following the death of a number of US troops the President Bill Clinton pulled the US out. In 1994 the US responded to a coup in Haiti which had overthrown the democratically elected president with the successful Operation Uphold Democracy. The USA reduced its military presence in Europe now it didn’t need protection from the USSR anymore, US missiles were withdrawn from the UK in 1991. The UK and USA continued to be close allies – they worked together in Kosovo, Kuwait and Bosnia. European countries like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, France and the UK joined a USA led coalition to help them fight the Gulf War. In 1999 previous Warsaw Pact members (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) joined NATO. In 1999 the USA led the NATO bombing of Serbia in an attempt to end a conflict in Kosovo. This was a success but there was a high number of civilian casualties which led to criticism of the USA’s actions and made their involvement highly controversial. Clinton also used diplomacy and US influence to try and broker peace between the Israelis and Palestinians and also in the Northern Ireland peace process.