Presentation on theme: "Open Access: the Discipline of Public Knowledge"— Presentation transcript:
1 Open Access: the Discipline of Public Knowledge Leslie CarrECS, SouthamptonBy the beginning of the century a new technology had emerged which promised to revolutionise the storage and dissemination of information, and of scientific and scholarly knowledge in particular. This was the twentieth century and the development was microphotography. Scholars and scientists wrote of the potential for microfilm-based collections of all the world’s knowledge reproduced and made available for individual researchers. They even described browsing machines to realize links and annotations, contemplating a global hypertext network decades before the invention of the digital computer.By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the emergence of a variety of applications of the Internet ( , FTP and the Web) gave scientists and scholars a practical means to distribute their own work with unprecedented ease and speed to a rapidly growing world-wide audience, without the expense and inconvenience of manufacturing and distributing printed products. The result was seen as a new and unprecedented public good: free, world-wide, open access to scientific research literature. To facilitate Open Access, research institutions and communities created repositories for their researchers to deposit their research data and publications.However, the complex relationships between researchers, institutions, politicians and the publishing industry mean that Open Access has been slow to gain a foothold without policy leadership. Researchers are rewarded for being efficient publishers, but in many aspects they are not natural knowledge sharers, whether in the form of Open Access repositories, or even simple web pages. The study of Open Access is the study of public knowledge sharing, the economics of global knowledge transfers and of the cost / benefit of web information services in the context of scholarly communication.
2 Excitement of New Technology… New century brings the maturity of a new technology for the storage and dissemination of information.Scholars and scientists debating the potential for collections of all the world’s knowledge reproduced and made available for individual researchers.
3 …but we’ve been here before Twentieth centuryMicrophotographyTelevision
4 Introduced US 3"x5" library card to Europe Paul Otlet,Belgian lawyerIntroduced US 3"x5" library card to EuropeTraité de Documentation (1934)the systematic organisation of all knowledge and thoughtMundanaeum: 15 million index card bibliographic index, 1 million documents and images, classified and searchable. Use of item became part of the bibliographic record. Content interlinked.
5 H. G. Wells, World Brain: The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia, Encyclopédie Française, August, 1937Encyclopaedias of the past sufficed for the needs of a cultivated minorityuniversal education was unthought ofgigantic increase in recorded knowledgemore gigantic growth in the numbers of human beings requiring accurate and easily accessible information
6 Permanent World Encyclopaedia Discontent with the role of universities and libraries in the intellectual life of mankindUniversities multiply but do not enlarge their scopethought & knowledge organization of the worldNo obstacle to the creation of an efficient index to all human knowledge, ideas and achievements
7 Vannevar Bush, As We May Think Atlantic Monthly, July 1945 Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development in USA, coordinating 6,000 American scientists during WW2Make our ‘bewildering store’ of knowledge more accessible“For many years inventions have extended man’s physical powers rather than the powers of his mind.”
8 The MemexThe Memex (never built) was to be a mechanised device to allow a library user toconsult all kinds of written materialorganize it in any way the user wantedadd private comments and link documents together at will.A personal library station which held all written articles and journals on microfilm.system of levers allowed users to add linkscreate trails
9 Otlet, Wells, Bush, Berners-Lee An historic theme of organising and disseminating the world’s knowledge through innovation and technologyOtlet : a manually curated repositoryWells : a centralised, managed global knowledge repository to combat fragmenting academic authority.Bush : a cross-disciplinary scholarly paradigm to combat fragmenting scientific knowledge.Berners-Lee : a distributed communications system to enable international collaboration
10 Open AccessA current movement for organising and disseminating the world’s knowledge through innovation and technology
11 Open Access: the Problem Universities and researchers are knowledge producers and knowledge consumersScholarly communications have been outsourcedLiterally nothing to show as evidence of research activitiesresearcherspublishersreadwrite
12 Possible Culprit1960s Robbins Report / expansion of higher education & expansion of science budgetAfter the war Robert Maxwell decided to publish scientific journals and set up Pergamon Press which was quickly and hugely profitable. (BBC News)Up to this point, journal publishing was done by university presses and scholarly societiesThe New Demand made for a very profitable system - with an increasing number of commercial publishers moving into STM.
13 The Literature: As We Imagine IntegratedAvailable
15 The Twin Peaks Problem 24,000 journals with 2,500,000 articles/yr AccessHave-NotsHarvardsfinancial firewallsImpact
16 The Budapest Open Access Initiative Old tradition of scholarly publishing + New technology of the Internet =Public good: free and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed journal literatureBudapest, December 2001
17 Open Access Strategies Green: Self-ArchivingJournal processes continue as normalAuthors deposit a copy of their papers into an ‘open access repository’Public copy is a supplement to the publishers official article for those who can’t afford a subscriptionAlso an institutional record of its work for sharing, reuse, marketing etcGold: PublishingJournal changes business modelReaders no longer pay to readInstead, authors pay to publishor their funders
18 New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Impact cycle begins:Research is doneResearchers writepre-refereeing“Pre-Print”12-18 MonthsSubmitted to JournalPre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review”Pre-Print revised by article’s AuthorsRefereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by JournalNew impact cycles: New research builds on existing researchResearchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal
19 GREEN Open Access Impact cycle begins: New impact cycles: Post-Print is self-archived in University’s Eprint ArchiveImpact cycle begins:Research is doneResearchers writepre-refereeing“Pre-Print”Pre-Print is self-archived in University’s Eprint ArchiveGREEN Open Access12-18 MonthsSubmitted to JournalPre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review”New impact cycles:Self-archived researchimpact is greater (and faster) because access is maximized (and accelerated)Pre-Print revised by article’s AuthorsRefereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by JournalTo maximise research access, supplement the existing system:Do as before, but also:Self-archive the preprint in your university’s Eprint Archive, so every would-be user can access it.Self-archive the postprint in your university’s Eprint Archive, so every would-be user can access it.Research access is maximized and so research impact is maximized.Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the JournalNew impact cycles: New research builds on existing research
20 Open Access Advantage OA increases citations Full bibliography, see
21 Contributors to the OA Advantage EA + QA + UA + (CA) + (QB) EA: Early Advantage: Self-archiving preprints before publication hastens and increases usage and citations (higher-quality articles benefit more: top 20% of articles receive 80% of citations)QA: Quality Advantage: Self-archiving postprints immediately upon publication hastens and increases usage and citations (higher-quality articles benefit more)UA: Usage Advantage: Self-archiving increases downloads (higher-quality articles benefit more)(CA: Competitive Advantage): OA/non-OA advantage (CA disappears at 100%OA, but very important today!)(QB: Quality Bias): Higher-quality articles are self-selectively self-archived more (QB disappears at 100%OA)These are the most likely components of the OA citation advantage
22 Repositories & Green OA Open Archiving Initiative - October 1999Agreed OAI-PMH for metadata sharing(2008 OAI-ORE for data exchange)Among the ParticipantsPaul Ginsparg (arXiv)Carl Lagoze (NCSTRL)Stevan Harnad (Cogprints)EPrintsproposed as a ‘build your own repository’ solutionenable institutions and groups to participate in OAI metadata sharing initiative
23 Example RepositoryA repository for a school of Electronics and Computer Science.It achieves % full text self-deposit
24 Fast Forward to Open Access The Optimal and Inevitable for Researchers.The entire full-text refereed corpus onlineOn every researcher’s desktop, everywhere24 hours a dayAll papers citation-interlinkedFully searchable, navigable, retrievableFor free, for all, foreverStevan Harnad, Les Carr OpCit International DLI Project Proposal (1999)
25 Problems with Green OAECS repository, 11,000 records, 4,000 full text, % open access to our research output.Average repository, 300 items, 200 full text, negligible research outputRecent NIH request for OA achieved 4% compliance
26 Problems with Gold OARelies on publishers changing their business modelScientific publishing is very lucrative (18% profits)Gold publishers making slow advances.
27 Retaking Responsibility Result is that universities further abdicated on their Wellsian responsibilitiesKnowledge dissemination outsourcedOwnership of research materials given awayScholarly communications now largely in the hands of commercial concerns? Is this a bad thing?What are the economic models for long-term management of knowledge?Was Wells hopelessly utopian?OA vs anti-capitalism?
28 Role of the RepositoryWho takes responsibility for curating the knowledge of the world?Back to OA & repositories - we do!The Institutional repository is a place where the members of an institution can curate their intellectual outputs / knowledge capitalShareUseReuseThe real Web revolution of ubiquitous knowledge will arrive.