Presentation on theme: "By Elaine Jones + Anne Wright."— Presentation transcript:
1By Elaine Jones + Anne Wright. Pre and Post op CareByElaine Jones + Anne Wright.
2Definitions.Perioperative nursing is a term used to describe the nursing functions in the total surgical experience of the patient, pre operative, intra operative, and post operative(Lipincott Manual of Nursing Practice th edition)
3Pre operative phase.This is from the time the decision is made for surgical intervention to the transfer of the patient to the operating room.
4Intra operative phase.This is from the time the patient is received in the operating room until transferred to the recovery room.
5Post operative phase.From the time of transfer to the recovery room to transfer back to ward.
6Types of surgery. Optional surgery Surgery is scheduled completely at the preference of the patient (e.g. Cosmetic surgery)RequiredThe condition requires surgery within a few weeks (E.g. cataract surgery)UrgentThis surgical problem requires attention within hours (e.g. cancer)EmergencySituation requires immediate surgical attention without delay (intestinal obstruction)ElectiveThe appropriate time for surgery is at the convenience of the patient, failure to have surgery is not catastrophic. (e.g. superficial cyst).
7Criteria for day surgery selection. Surgery for short duration ( up to 60 minutes).Type of operation in which post operative complications are predictably low.Age (based on biological/physiological age rather than chronological).BMI.Support at home for 24 hrswithin 1 hours journey from hospitalaccess to telephoneAdequate toilet facilities (inside)Government targets 70% of all surgery should be Day CaseAll pts should be considered for Day Surgery unless health and fitness suggest otherwiseBenefits pts in hospital shorter timeLess time to contract infections etc.Relies on home social circumstances and primary care for ongoing treatment
8Exercise 1.On admission for surgery patients undergo an assessment, what factors need to be consideredPhysical fitnesspsychologicallegaladministrative
9Answers. Reason for admission Biographical information Current health status/illnessMedicationsSymptoms/complaints/disabilitiesPrevious medical problemsChronic illnessFamily medical historyNutritional statusIntegrated Care Pathway
11Psychological Assessment. Patient may be anxious for numerous reasons……..
12Suggestions…. Fear of the unknown Anaesthetic + side effects / not waking upUnrelieved painRestricted in bed post op.Use of bed panBody image /effect on relationship, familyDependant relatives.Financial problems if sole provider for family.
13In what ways can the nurse alleviate anxiety in the pre op patient? Pre operative education:-Patient information leaflets, diagrams, postersPre op visit from recovery nurses.Specialist nurses- pain control team, surgical nurse specialist.
14Consent. >Legal requirement. >Informed consent Written consent should be obtained identifying that the subject has received and understood:-The procedure offeredReasonable alternatives to the procedurePossible benefits of the procedure to the patient.Risks, inconveniences, and discomforts of the procedure.Answers to all patient's questions.(DOH 2001)
15Immediate pre operative preparation. What are the fasting requirements for a patient pre operatively?
16It is routine to fast patients for a minimum of four hours before a general anaesthetic, to empty the stomach and avoid peri-or post operative vomiting, or regurgitation, which increases the risk of aspiration.2hrs Preop for water (tap not fizzy)
17Gastrointestinal preparation. Is this required for all types of surgery?
18Bowel evacuation is carried out :- To prevent defaecation during surgeryTo reduce the risks of accidental damage to the colon during abdominal surgery.It is not required for all types of surgery, and should not be seen as routine.
20It is necessary to remove dirt and transient micro organisms from the area. Local procedures should be followed.
21Is this necessary pre op? Hair removal.Is this necessary pre op?
22Controversial area of discussion!! Against Pre operative shaving increases risk of post operative wound infection.In favour of shaving:-Avoidance of hairs trapping in the incisionA clear field of vision.Clippers should be used to avoid damage to the skin if shaving is reqd
23Pre op check list. Exercise Discuss each item on the checklist, and provide a rationale for its importance.Feedback to group.
24Premedication.Prior to any pre medication being given, the nurse must :-Ensure identity bands are worn and labelled correctly.Consent form is signed by patient and doctor.Patient has voided urine.Check all other items on the checklist.Premedication to be given as prescribed at appropriate time, with explanation to the patient.
25Final checkEnsure checklist is with patients notes, along with consent form, x-rays, laboratory results, nurses records.Patient is transferred to theatre.
26POST OPERATIVE CAREWhat factors should you consider when caring for a patient post operatively(this starts from accepting the patient from the recovery room)Information from recovery nurseOnly accept pt when you have all the information regarding care requiredObservations
27Post op care AnswersHandover from recovery nurse to determine post op instruction from surgeon/anaesthetistObservations ( Airway patency, level of consciousness,BP, pulse, respirations)TemperatureWound check ( e.g per vagina, per rectum)Fluid balance (catheter, IVI, naso gastric tube, catheter, wound drain)Pain (pain score, positioning, analgesia)General appearance (colour, pallor, sweating, shivering)
28Common post operative complications Respiratory complicationsAirway obstruction, chest infectionCardiovascular complicationsshock, haemorrhage, DVT, PEGastrointestinalvomiting, constipation, paralytic ileus, retention of urineWound infection