Presentation on theme: "“Why One Person’s Taste Bliss is Another Person’s Poison""— Presentation transcript:
1“Why One Person’s Taste Bliss is Another Person’s Poison" Prof. Tony Blake
2“How Human Beings Learn to Like the Flavours of Foods and Drinks" Prof. Tony Blake
3…..of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, yeshall not eat of it, neithershall ye touch it, lest ye die.....but in spite of this warningEve was typically human.
4Humans are the only animals which cook and process thefoods they find……………...and in this way createnew flavors which neverexisted before in Nature.
5Humans eat the foods which they have created through their methods of cooking and cuisine.The flavors of these foods are dependenton the cooking processes used and areconsequently man made.In human history there have been continualchanges in food and flavor preferences
6These are the remains of what is arguably the oldest flavour factory in the world. At Lixus in northern Morocco one can see the Roman factory which made Garum or Liquamem - a fermented fish sauce. Probably not dissimilar to Nuoc Mam a key food seasoning used in Thailand or the fish sauces still made by the Inouit Eskimos of Canada.
7This is the pit into which the entrails of anchovies were placed This is the pit into which the entrails of anchovies were placed. They were allowed to decay and ferment to give the final product.Surely this is the oldest bio-reactor in the world.
8The Evolving Scientific Base of the Flavor Industry 19th Century 20th Century st CenturySolvent Extraction Molecular Separation Physical ChemistrySteam Distillation Identification BiochemistryFractional Distillation Synthetic Organic Chemistry Human PhysiologyThe flavour industry needed to evolve to meet the needs of the food industry. During the 20th Century organic chemistry became the science which expanded the capabilities of the flavour industry from one based on extraction to one based on analysis and chemical understanding.
9For most of the 20th Century the focus of the Flavor Industry was the identificationof those molecules which give odor andtaste to food and drinks
10New analytical techniques allowed these molecules to be identified at lower levelsand with increasing precision
13SOMany sulphur compounds have powerful olfactive intensities. S-S’-ethylidene di thio acetate was identified in 1996 as the molecule which gives blood oranges their characteristic flavour.
14Many foods that we eat have little or no flavour.
15Until we cook them. The flavour of meat has fascinated scientists for centuries as it is made by a process that cows at least would consider unnatural. Man invented cooked meat and the flavours that come with it, so how natural are they?
16This is just one compound isolated from cooked beef and with one of the lowest threshold levels ever measured
17Flavor Authenticity depends: not only on having the correct moleculesbut also an appropriate delivery systemand the correct dynamics of delivery
18In 1990 Firmenich purchased the Californian company MCP They had an enviable reputation in organic chemistry but lacked the science base for understanding the new products acquired with this acquisition
22In 1996 at the University of Nottingham Prof. Andy Taylor and Dr. Rob Linforth developed a technique for real-time, in vivo analysis of flavor release from food and this allowed a new understanding of flavor dynamics and the effects which food structure and composition have on its perception.
24AROMA sweet sour PROFILE bitter umami salty We should not forget that flavour is complex and relies not just on the aroma of many thousands of volatile molecules but also the sense of taste - limited to only five dimensions. Sweet, salt, sour, biter and umami - the taste of monosodium glutamate.
25Normalised sucrose and menthone release Perceived Intensity 1201201001008080Normalised sucrose andmenthone release6060Perceived IntensitySucrose Release40Menthone Release40Time-Intensity2020123456Time (min)Courtesy of J. Davidson & A J Taylor. The University of Nottingham
26From Breslin et alAroma-chology Review, vol. X n°2, pp14-17 (2002)
40> 80% of the input data is from breath from the mouth passing over the olfactory bulb in the nose, but what we see, how it feels, how it tastes, what we hear and our pleasure and satisfaction will all influence the way we remember it.
41Flavour is a multi-sensory memory…. …… Flavour is a multi-sensory memory….. …….which depends on our personal experiences of eating and drinking…...
42All our senses play a part in flavor perception ConsciousTouchHearingVisionPropriosenseOlfactionTasteAll our senses play a part in flavor perception
43Flavor Processing: more than the sum of its parts.Small, D., Jones-Gotman, M.,Zatorre, M.P. and Evans, A.C.NeuroReport 8, pp (1997)Flavor processing is not represented by a simple convergence of its component senses….changes (seenwith PET imaging) in the amygdala and basal forebrain suggest a role for these structures in processing novel or unpleasant stimuli.
44Zampini, M. and C. Spence (2004 ). “The role of auditory cues in modulatingthe crispness and staleness in crisps.”Journal of Sensory Studies 19,
57One would be hard-pressed to find a developmental neurobiologist who does not agree that earlyexperiences, especially between mother and infant,influence the pattern of brain connections inways that fundamentally shape our futurepersonality and mental health.Professor Mark SolmsChair of NeuropsychologyUniversity of Cape TownSouth Africa
58Our brains do not have the capability to form conscious memories until after theage of two, but the development of thebrain in those first two years will greatly affect future attitudes, prejudices and behavior:- this will include future preferencesfor foods, drinks and their flavors.
59The liking of wintergreen flavour depends on nurture not nature
60Muscle-warming liniment or anti-septic ointment ? What does wintergreen remind you of ?Muscle-warming liniment or anti-septic ointment ?
64Monell Chemical Senses Laboratory PhiladelphiaDr. Gary Beauchamp
65Professor Leann Lipps Birch Center for Childhood Obesity Research
66Prescott, J., Johnstone, V., Francis, J. Prof. John PrescottJames Cook UniversityUniversity of CairnsAustraliaOdor-Taste Interactions: Effects of Attentional Strategies during exposure.Prescott, J., Johnstone, V., Francis, J.Chemical Senses 29, pp , (2004)