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Body In Action Revision.

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Presentation on theme: "Body In Action Revision."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body In Action Revision

2 Movement

3 The skeleton is required for:
Muscle attachment Support Protection Ribs  Heart & Lungs Skull  Brain Vertebrae  Spinal Cord

4 Bone is made up of: Hard minerals – Calcium phosphate
Flexible fibres – living bone cells

5 Joints can be: Ball & Socket  Hip / shoulder Hinge  Knee / Elbow
Allows movement in 3 planes Hinge  Knee / Elbow Allows movement in 1 plane

6 Synovial Joints - Credit
Freely movable joints Structure Function Ligament Holds BONES together Cartilage Reduces friction & acts as a shock absorber Synovial Membrane Secretes synovial fluid Synovial Fluid Lubricant which reduces friction.


8 Muscles & Movement Muscles bring about movement in the body.
Muscles can only contract or relax – they cannot make themselves longer.

9 Muscles Muscles are attached to bones by inelastic tendons
They must be inelastic so that when a muscle contracts they pull on the bone!!

10 Antagonistic Pairs - Credit
Muscles must work in pairs. When one muscle contracts the other relaxes allowing the joint to move. To straighten the joint the opposite muscles contract and relax.


12 The Need for Energy

13 Energy In Food Energy in food is measured in KILOJOULES.
The amount of energy required by a person depends on Size Age Sex Activity levels Weight Loss Weight Gain Energy Imbalance

14 Comparing Inhaled & Exhaled Air
Inhaled Air High Oxygen Low Carbon Dioxide Exhaled Air Low Oxygen High Carbon Dioxide During Aerobic Respiration oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide is produced.

15 The Respiratory System

16 The trachea ( windpipe) is supported by rings of cartilage.
Mucus catches dirt & bacteria and is carried to the top of the trachea by cilia. The mucus is then swallowed.

17 Breathing Breathing is brought about by the muscles of the ribs (intercostal muscles) and the diaphram contracting & relaxing. During inspiration the volume of the chest cavity increases and air rushes in to fill the space. During expiration the volume of the chest decreases and air is pushed out.


19 Gas Exchange Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli (air sacs)
To allow effiecient gas exchange the alveoli have a: Large surface area Moist surface Good blood supply Thin lining


21 The Circulatory System
The heart is a muscular pump Pumps blood around the body Supplies all cells with Food Oxygen Removes wastes Carbon dioxide

22 Structure of the heart Valves prevent the backflow of blood
The muscle of the left side is much thicker as it must pump blood all around the body. The muscle on the right side is thinner. It only pumps blood to the lungs

23 The Circulatory System – Blood Flow

24 Blood Vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries thick, muscular walls
carry high pressure blood away from the heart Veins thin, stretchy, muscular walls return low pressure blood to the heart Valves prevent backflow of blood Capillaries tiny blood vessels connect arteries and veins carry blood to the cells of the body

25 The Coronary Artery Leads from the aorta - supplies blood to heart muscle. Blockage can result in a heart attack

26 The Blood Blood is made up of:
Plasma – liquid which carries cells and dissolved substances Red blood cells – carry oxygen White blood cells – fight infection Platelets – help clot blood

27 Gas Exchange As blood flows through capillaries oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells. Carbon dioxide from the cells diffuses into the blood and is carried away. Blood high in oxygen Blood high in carbon dioxide.

28 Capillary Networks To allow efficient gas exchange the capillary network has: A large surface area Very thin cell walls

29 Haemoglobin Red blood cells contain haemoglobin.
This combines with oxygen in the lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin. As the blood passes through cells which have low oxygen levels the oxyhaemoglobin releases the oxygen which can then be used by the cells.

30 Coordination

31 The Eye

32 The structure of the eye:
Cornea - focusing of light. Lens - fine focuses the light onto the retina Iris - controls the size of the pupil, controling the amount of light entering the eye.  Retina - layer of light sensitive cells where an image is formed. Optic nerve - carries the nerve impulses to the brain. Blind spot – where the optic nerve meets the retina – no image is formed here.

33 Binocular Vision Using two eyes allows us to judge distance.
This is called binocular vision.

34 The Ear

35 Judging Direction Using two ears allows us to judge the direction of sound more effectively.

36 Balance The position of the head can be judged by the position of fluid in the semi – circular canals.

37 The Nervous System The human nervous system is made up of The brain
The spinal cord The nerves The brain & spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS).

38 Functions of parts of the brain
Cerebrum – conscious thought, memory, senses, intelligence, imagination. Cerebellum – balance & coordination. Medulla (brain stem) – breathing & heart rate.

39 Nerves Sensory Neurons carry information from sense organs to the brain. Information is decoded in the brain. Motor Neurons carry information back to the body.

40 Reflex Reactions Very quick. Protect the body from harm.
Do not involve conscious thought. Sneezing Blinking Limb withdrawal (eg from heat)

41 The Reflex Arc Relay nerves in the spinal cord send information from the sensory neurone straight to the motor neurone

42 Changing Levels of Performance

43 Muscle Fatigue Muscle fatigue occurs due to the build up of lactic acid in muscles that are exercising. Lack of oxygen results in anaerobic respiraton which causes lactic acid to form.

44 Anaerobic Respiration
Only a little energy is released. During rest oxygen is needed to remove the lactic acid formed. This is known as the ‘oxygen debt’.

45 Exercise Exercise causes the heart rate & breathing rate to increase.
Allows more blood carrying sugar & oxygen to be supplied to muscles. The time taken for these to return to normal following exercise is the RECOVERY TIME.

46 Fitter people have a shorter recovery time than unfit people.
They also have lower levels of lactic acid production. Recovery time can be improved by regular exercise

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