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Body In Action Revision. Movement The skeleton is required for: Muscle attachment Muscle attachment Support Support Protection Protection Ribs  Heart.

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Presentation on theme: "Body In Action Revision. Movement The skeleton is required for: Muscle attachment Muscle attachment Support Support Protection Protection Ribs  Heart."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body In Action Revision

2 Movement

3 The skeleton is required for: Muscle attachment Muscle attachment Support Support Protection Protection Ribs  Heart & Lungs Ribs  Heart & Lungs Skull  Brain Skull  Brain Vertebrae  Spinal Cord Vertebrae  Spinal Cord

4 Bone is made up of: Bone is made up of: Hard minerals – Calcium phosphate Hard minerals – Calcium phosphate Flexible fibres – living bone cells Flexible fibres – living bone cells

5 Joints can be: Joints can be: Ball & Socket  Hip / shoulder Ball & Socket  Hip / shoulder Allows movement in 3 planes Allows movement in 3 planes Hinge  Knee / Elbow Hinge  Knee / Elbow Allows movement in 1 plane Allows movement in 1 plane

6 Synovial Joints - Credit Freely movable joints Freely movable joints StructureFunction Ligament Holds BONES together Cartilage Reduces friction & acts as a shock absorber Synovial Membrane Secretes synovial fluid Synovial Fluid Lubricant which reduces friction.

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8 Muscles & Movement Muscles bring about movement in the body. Muscles bring about movement in the body. Muscles can only contract or relax – they cannot make themselves longer. Muscles can only contract or relax – they cannot make themselves longer.

9 Muscles Muscles are attached to bones by inelastic tendons Muscles are attached to bones by inelastic tendons They must be inelastic so that when a muscle contracts they pull on the bone!! They must be inelastic so that when a muscle contracts they pull on the bone!!

10 Antagonistic Pairs - Credit Muscles must work in pairs. Muscles must work in pairs. When one muscle contracts the other relaxes allowing the joint to move. When one muscle contracts the other relaxes allowing the joint to move. To straighten the joint the opposite muscles contract and relax. To straighten the joint the opposite muscles contract and relax.

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12 The Need for Energy

13 Energy In Food Energy in food is measured in KILOJOULES. Energy in food is measured in KILOJOULES. The amount of energy required by a person depends on The amount of energy required by a person depends on SizeAge SizeAge SexActivity levels SexActivity levels Weight LossWeight Gain Weight LossWeight Gain Energy Imbalance Energy Imbalance

14 Comparing Inhaled & Exhaled Air Inhaled Air Inhaled Air High Oxygen High Oxygen Low Carbon Dioxide Low Carbon Dioxide Exhaled Air Exhaled Air Low Oxygen Low Oxygen High Carbon Dioxide High Carbon Dioxide During Aerobic Respiration oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide is produced. During Aerobic Respiration oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide is produced.

15 The Respiratory System

16 The trachea ( windpipe) is supported by rings of cartilage. The trachea ( windpipe) is supported by rings of cartilage. Mucus catches dirt & bacteria and is carried to the top of the trachea by cilia. Mucus catches dirt & bacteria and is carried to the top of the trachea by cilia. The mucus is then swallowed. The mucus is then swallowed.

17 Breathing Breathing is brought about by the muscles of the ribs (intercostal muscles) and the diaphram contracting & relaxing. Breathing is brought about by the muscles of the ribs (intercostal muscles) and the diaphram contracting & relaxing. During inspiration the volume of the chest cavity increases and air rushes in to fill the space. During inspiration the volume of the chest cavity increases and air rushes in to fill the space. During expiration the volume of the chest decreases and air is pushed out. During expiration the volume of the chest decreases and air is pushed out.

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19 Gas Exchange Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli (air sacs) Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli (air sacs) To allow effiecient gas exchange the alveoli have a: To allow effiecient gas exchange the alveoli have a: Large surface area Large surface area Moist surface Moist surface Good blood supply Good blood supply Thin lining Thin lining

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21 The Circulatory System The heart is a muscular pump The heart is a muscular pump Pumps blood around the body Pumps blood around the body Supplies all cells with Supplies all cells with Food Food Oxygen Oxygen Removes wastes Removes wastes Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide

22 Structure of the heart The muscle of the left side is much thicker as it must pump blood all around the body. The muscle on the right side is thinner. It only pumps blood to the lungs Valves prevent the backflow of blood

23 The Circulatory System – Blood Flow

24 Blood Vessels Arteries thick, muscular walls carry high pressure blood away from the heart Veins thin, stretchy, muscular walls return low pressure blood to the heart Valves prevent backflow of blood Capillaries tiny blood vessels connect arteries and veins carry blood to the cells of the body

25 The Coronary Artery Leads from the aorta - supplies blood to heart muscle. Leads from the aorta - supplies blood to heart muscle. Blockage can result in a heart attack Blockage can result in a heart attack

26 The Blood Blood is made up of: Blood is made up of: Plasma – liquid which carries cells and dissolved substances Plasma – liquid which carries cells and dissolved substances Red blood cells – carry oxygen Red blood cells – carry oxygen White blood cells – fight infection White blood cells – fight infection Platelets – help clot blood Platelets – help clot blood

27 Gas Exchange As blood flows through capillaries oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells. As blood flows through capillaries oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells. Carbon dioxide from the cells diffuses into the blood and is carried away. Carbon dioxide from the cells diffuses into the blood and is carried away. Blood high in oxygen Blood high in carbon dioxide.

28 Capillary Networks To allow efficient gas exchange the capillary network has: To allow efficient gas exchange the capillary network has: A large surface area A large surface area Very thin cell walls Very thin cell walls

29 Haemoglobin Red blood cells contain haemoglobin. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin. This combines with oxygen in the lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin. This combines with oxygen in the lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin. As the blood passes through cells which have low oxygen levels the oxyhaemoglobin releases the oxygen which can then be used by the cells. As the blood passes through cells which have low oxygen levels the oxyhaemoglobin releases the oxygen which can then be used by the cells.

30 Coordination

31 The Eye

32 The structure of the eye: Cornea - focusing of light. Cornea - focusing of light. Lens - fine focuses the light onto the retina Lens - fine focuses the light onto the retina Iris - controls the size of the pupil, controling the amount of light entering the eye. Iris - controls the size of the pupil, controling the amount of light entering the eye. Retina - layer of light sensitive cells where an image is formed. Retina - layer of light sensitive cells where an image is formed. Optic nerve - carries the nerve impulses to the brain. Optic nerve - carries the nerve impulses to the brain. Blind spot – where the optic nerve meets the retina – no image is formed here. Blind spot – where the optic nerve meets the retina – no image is formed here.

33 Binocular Vision Using two eyes allows us to judge distance. Using two eyes allows us to judge distance. This is called binocular vision. This is called binocular vision.

34 The Ear

35 Judging Direction Using two ears allows us to judge the direction of sound more effectively. Using two ears allows us to judge the direction of sound more effectively.

36 Balance The position of the head can be judged by the position of fluid in the semi – circular canals. The position of the head can be judged by the position of fluid in the semi – circular canals.

37 The Nervous System The human nervous system is made up of The human nervous system is made up of The brain The brain The spinal cord The spinal cord The nerves The nerves The brain & spinal cord The brain & spinal cord make up the central make up the central nervous system (CNS). nervous system (CNS).

38 Functions of parts of the brain Cerebrum – conscious thought, memory, senses, intelligence, imagination. Cerebrum – conscious thought, memory, senses, intelligence, imagination. Cerebellum – balance & coordination. Cerebellum – balance & coordination. Medulla (brain stem) – breathing & heart rate. Medulla (brain stem) – breathing & heart rate.

39 Nerves Sensory Neurons carry information from sense organs to the brain. Sensory Neurons carry information from sense organs to the brain. Information is decoded in the brain. Information is decoded in the brain. Motor Neurons carry information back to the body. Motor Neurons carry information back to the body.

40 Reflex Reactions Very quick. Very quick. Protect the body from harm. Protect the body from harm. Do not involve conscious thought. Do not involve conscious thought. Sneezing Sneezing Blinking Blinking Limb withdrawal (eg from heat) Limb withdrawal (eg from heat)

41 The Reflex Arc Relay nerves in the spinal cord send information from the sensory neurone straight to the motor neurone

42 Changing Levels of Performance

43 Muscle Fatigue Muscle fatigue occurs due to the build up of lactic acid in muscles that are exercising. Muscle fatigue occurs due to the build up of lactic acid in muscles that are exercising. Lack of oxygen results in anaerobic respiraton which causes lactic acid to form. Lack of oxygen results in anaerobic respiraton which causes lactic acid to form.

44 Anaerobic Respiration Only a little energy is released. Only a little energy is released. During rest oxygen is needed to remove the lactic acid formed. During rest oxygen is needed to remove the lactic acid formed. This is known as the ‘oxygen debt’. This is known as the ‘oxygen debt’.

45 Exercise Exercise causes the heart rate & breathing rate to increase. Exercise causes the heart rate & breathing rate to increase. Allows more blood carrying sugar & oxygen to be supplied to muscles. Allows more blood carrying sugar & oxygen to be supplied to muscles. The time taken for these to return to normal following exercise is the RECOVERY TIME. The time taken for these to return to normal following exercise is the RECOVERY TIME.

46 Fitter people have a shorter recovery time than unfit people. Fitter people have a shorter recovery time than unfit people. They also have lower levels of lactic acid production. They also have lower levels of lactic acid production. Recovery time can be improved by regular exercise Recovery time can be improved by regular exercise


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