Before the 1970s: Dining out was seldom a choice of Taiwanese families During the 1980s: Eating-out expenditure of household rose significantly Beginning in the 1990s: RM meal market started to expand, proliferating in the past ten years
Meal planning is regarded as tiring labour, less enjoyable than cooking. Emergence of “delivery dinner” -- Consumers can choose cooked dishes or ready-to-cook dishes -- Consumers can have a complete dinner at home without planning, food shopping, and cooking.
Dishwashers are uncommon. Some interviewees choose to eat out to avoid any cleaning, including to deal with leftover food and trash. -- R2: The most tiring part of cooking is to clean all pots and the kitchen. -- R3: Cooking is interesting, but I do hate washing and cleaning.
Survey “my cooking skill is worse than my parents” -- 2001: 65.7% -- 2012: 70.2% Taiwanese parents encourage children to study language, music, painting and sport but not acquire living skills like household cleaning, fixing and gardening.
Long working time and distance marriage result in more: -- Individualized dining --Combination of ready-made foods and self-cooked dishes
Women’s labour force participation rate has grown from 38.76% in 1981 to 50.19% in 2012. 44.4% of employed female work in “clerical support” and “service and sales” sectors.
Legislators, Senior officials & Managers Professiona ls Technician s & Associate Professiona ls Clerical Support Workers Service & Sales Workers Skilled Agricultur al, Forestry & Fishery Workers Craft & Machine Operation Related Workers Male 44.7342.8543.7542.5448.8639.9343.32 Female 44.1541.0242.4141.8747.1439.4542.29
Regarding “cooking for the family” as their obligation, feeling guilty if not cook Women over 50, young housewives, and those who live in rural areas Good at cooking, familiar with routine practices and equipment maintaining Buying RM only to add the variety of dishes
They cook at home when their spouse or children are at home, but prefer dine out or go back to parents’ home to dine Suggesting that “dining out is cheaper than cooking at home” because it is not economical to cook for less than three diners: -- more food waste -- inefficient if counting the time and energy it takes
They cook less than 10 times a year. Generally aged between 20--40, do not live with parents -- No time/willingness for routine practices -- No competences in cooking -- No access to cooking equipment
Individual diners Prefer dining at home to dining out Too busy to go out for meals Frozen festive dishes
The “royal family cooks” are mainly those who were born before 1970, regardless of employment status. Now some of them continue to cook for their married children and grandchildren. Those were born after 1970 prefer dining out, and seldom feel guilty if they do not cook.
No time for food shopping No willingness to do routines practices like planning /cleaning Lack of cooking skills Low utilization of microwave and dishwasher (resulted from long working time and neglect of home economic training etc. ) --- The chain cannot work, leading to less home cooking and more needs for food prepared outside.
Low cost and variety in dining-out Cafeteria and meal-box: 2-3 £ “Accounting the cost in time and energy, dining-out is cheaper than cooking at home for three or less diner.” Food safety and healthy issues