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IA901 2012 Session Seven Clauses and sentences.

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Presentation on theme: "IA901 2012 Session Seven Clauses and sentences."— Presentation transcript:

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3 IA Session Seven Clauses and sentences

4 Increasingly complex language via the medium of cake

5 The four main communicative roles of clauses: Imperative Eat! Eat cake! Exclamatory Cake! Interrogative Cake? Declarative It’s a piece of cake. The girl eats cake. The girl does not eat cake. cake

6 We can build up the noun phrases with adjectives: The girl eats cake. In 60 seconds, how many adjectives can you add to this clause?

7 We can build up the noun phrases with adjectives: The girl eats cake. The Japanese girl eats chocolate cake. The lovely intelligent friendly hungry 24- year-old Japanese girl eats delicious gooey hazelnut-encrusted chocolate cake. or with prepositions: The girl eats cakes of all varieties. And note the issue of countability that pervades all NOUN PHRASES in English:

8 What’s the difference between cake and a cake? I’m going to enter a cake-eating competition. Do humans need competition?

9 TENSE allows us to express ideas of remoteness (not just in terms of time) Did you eat the cake? I ate the cake. If I were you, I’d eat it quickly.

10 ASPECT allows us to give a perspective on the verb in relation to whether it is completed or in progress: She is eating the cake. She has eaten the cake. She has been eating the cake. Awareness of LEXICAL ASPECT involves considering whether the meaning of a particular verb affects whether or not it can be used in PASSIVE, PERFECT, or PROGRESSIVE STRUCTURES: *The best cakes are containing lots of sugar!

11 MOOD allows the speaker or writer to add a personal “filter” to express a judgement of: ABILITY I can eat three cakes in two minutes. I can’t eat any more cake. PERMISSION May I eat the cake? You can eat the cake. She can’t have any more cake.

12 OBLIGATION You should eat more cake. I must eat that cake! You must not eat my cake! VOLITION I will eat the cake. I won’t eat your cake. LIKELIKHOOD I might eat the cake. She must have eaten my cake!

13 THE PASSIVE VOICE allows us to place emphasis on a non-agentive subject: The cake has been eaten.

14 MAIN CLAUSES She eats cake. The Japanese girl is eating chocolate cake in class again. The Japanese girl has eaten all the chocolate cake. She ate the cake and then she asked for more. She ate the cake but she didn’t enjoy it. More problematically, perhaps, we also have EMBEDDED CLAUSES

15 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES She ate the cake yesterday. She ate the cake in three minutes. She ate the cake hungrily. She ate the cake quickly because she thought someone might steal it. She was eating cake when the police arrived. She ate the cake while I was washing the dishes. If you make a cake, I’ll eat it. If you made a cake, I would eat it. When you make cakes, I eat them. If you had made a cake I would have eaten it. If you hadn’t eaten the cake last night I could be eating it now. If I knew you were coming I’d have baked a cake.

16 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Yesterday she ate the cake. I n three minutes, she ate the cake. Hungrily, she ate the cake. Because she thought someone might steal it, she ate the cake quickly. When the police arrived, she was eating cake. While I was washing the dishes, she ate the cake. I’ll eat a cake if you make one. I would eat a cake if you made one. I eat cakes when you make them. I would have eaten a cake if you had made one. I could be eating the cake now If you hadn’t eaten it last night. I’d have baked a cake if you I knew you were coming.

17 A break from cake: Types of adverbial

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19 OK. Back to the cakes…

20 COMPLEMENT CLAUSES A cake is what I really want. A cake is what I really need. The cake is why I go to weddings. How she makes those cakes is a mystery. RELATIVE CLAUSES She ate the cake that I made. She ate the cake I bought. She ate the cake that was bought for my birthday. She at the cake bought for my birthday. Several cakes were eaten by the girl who recently had her hair cut. Until now, every clause we’ve seen has been a FINITE CLAUSE with a FINITE VERB

21 NON-FINITE CLAUSES INFINTIVE CLAUSES I eat cake to cheer myself up. I eat cake to take away the pain. PARTICIPLE CLAUSES -ING FORMS (ADVERBIAL) I eat cake lying in the bath. I eat cake driving to work. Driving to work this morning I ate three cakes. -EN/-ED FORMS (ADJECTIVAL) Confused by all of these sentences, I am going to eat a nice big cake to cheer myself up.

22 Review of preparatory task

23 GRAMMATICAL HIERARCHY SENTENCES contain one or more CLAUSES, which contain one or more PHRASES, which contain one or more WORDS, which contain one or more MORPHEMES If only life was so simple…

24 Compare your answers to the PREPARATORY TASK with at least one other person.

25 1. I know an old lady who swallowed a fly S V O RELATIVE CLAUSE Embedded in the NP, which is the OBJECT of the CLAUSE Post-modification of the HEAD Issues for learners: Defining – as opposed to non-defining I know an old lady, who swallowed a fly. I know an old lady, which is interesting. Relative pronoun *I know an old lady which swallowed a fly *I know an old lady swallowed a fly I know an old lady that swallowed a fly English doesn’t employ resumptive pronouns: *I know an old lady who she swallowed a fly.

26 2. I don't know why she swallowed the fly S V O 3. I don't know how she swallowed the cow S V O NOMINAL/ WH-NOUN CLAUSE OBJECT of the CLAUSE Embeds a CLAUSE within a CLAUSE ADVERBIAL function Issues for learners: Distinction between NOMINAL and RELATIVE CLAUSES Distinction between NOMINAL CLAUSES and QUESTIONS

27 S VO 4. I know an old lady who swallowed a spider that wriggled and jiggled and tickled inside her RELATIVE CLAUSE Embedded in the NP, which is the OBJECT of a RELATIVE CLAUSE Post-modification of the HEAD Includes COORDINATION Includes the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE “inside her” (with an ADJUNCT / ADVERBIAL function)

28 5. She swallowed the spider to catch the fly SV OA NON-FINITE CLAUSE TO- INFINITIVE CLAUSE / INFINITIVE CLAUSE / INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE ADJUNCT function Issues for learners: NON-FINITE means that “to catch” does not show tense Position in sentence: To catch the fly she swallowed the spider.

29 6. How absurd exclamatory Issues for learners: No subject or verb! Although we could produce How absurd it is. HOW can be used with an ADJECTIVE / CLAUSE WHAT can be used with a NOUN PHRASE Distinction between exclamatory and INTERROGATIVE ROLE OF CLAUSE: INTERROGATIVE: How tall are you? (C V S) EXCLAMATORY: How tall you are! (C S V)

30 7. Imagine that Has the form of an IMPERATIVE CLAUSE… …but has an exclamatory FUNCTION Issues for learners: Appropriacy of use : imperatives can be considered impolite Exclamations are usually informal, but imperatives could be found in formal contexts Range of functions : can give orders, make requests, and invitations

31 8. She's dead of course! S V C A ADVERB PHRASE ADJUNCT / ADVERBIAL function Issues for learners: Position in sentence and effect on meaning: Of course she’s dead. She of course is dead. She is of course dead.

32 9.This is the farmer sowing his corn S V CA NON-FINITE –ING CLAUSE / PARTICIPLE CLAUSE ADJUCT / ADVERBIAL function 10.That waked the priest all shaven and shorn NON-FINITE –EN / -ED CLAUSE / PARTICIPLE CLAUSE ADJECTIVAL function Issues for learners: Difference between NON-FINITE CLAUSES and REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES This is the farmer sowing his corn v This is the farmer who is sowing his corn. the priest all shaven and shorn v the priest who is all shaven and shorn

33 This is the farmer sowing his corn that kept the cock that crowed in the morn that waked the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built! Fabb (2005) presents the final verse of “The House That Jack Built” as an example of RECURISON, where a clause is embedded within a noun phrase, which is itself part of a clause inside a noun phrase and so on. RECURSION opens up the possibility of never-ending sentences, however unwelcome they may be to a reader!

34 GRAMMATICAL HIERARCHY SENTENCES contain one or more CLAUSES, which contain one or more PHRASES, which contain one or more WORDS, which contain one or more MORPHEMES BUT this isn’t true in the house that Jack built!

35 DISCUSSION Which of the features of “sentence structure” we have discussed are covered by the teaching materials you are familiar with? Is the term CLAUSE used in teaching materials you are familiar with? Do you think it is a helpful term for the learner?

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37 Clauses

38 Clauses in English : True or false? 1.Subjects always precede the verb in English clauses 2.Subjects are always NOUN PHRASES 3.Subjects agree with the VERB PHRASE 4.Subjects refer to the “doer” of the action 5.Objects are always NOUN PHRASES What about: 1. Here comes the bus; Leave me alone! 2.Gently does it! 3.The Japanese women’s football team is / are the best in the world; The judge recommended that the defendant be imprisoned for a minimum of 10 years. 4.I was arrested for handling stolen goods. 5.I don’t know why she swallowed a fly.

39 What is a clause? FUNCTIONS : Can be sentences “in their own right” Can be components in sentences as subjects, objects, adjuncts / adverbials. FORMS: MAIN CLAUSE: Declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory SUBORDINATE / EMBEDDED: Adverbial, Complement, Relative, Non-finite

40 Sentences

41 Traditional classification of sentences: a)Simple b)Compound c)Complex d)Compound-complex sentence What do you understand by such classification? What are the limits of classifying sentences in this way?

42 Are these sentences? 1.Sort of. 2.And then? 3.Thank you very much. 4.That sort of thing, yes. 5.Oh I reckon they're lovely. I really do whippets. (from Carter & McCarthy, cited in Leech, 1998)

43 Utility of describing sentences

44 Are these sentences? 1.Sort of. 2.And then? 3.Thank you very much. 4.That sort of thing, yes. 5.Oh I reckon they're lovely. I really do whippets. (from Carter & McCarthy, cited in Leech, 1998)

45 Leech (in Culpepper et al, 2009): -the sentence is not a particularly useful unit to focus on. -Spoken English can make sense without “grammatical” sentence structures -much language cannot be classified in terms of sentence types (fancy that!). Leech proposes instead that CLAUSES and PHRASES are more worthy of analysis

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47 Alternative approaches

48 Computers Willis (2003) enablescientiststocarry out complex calculationsat high speed. He askedmeto tellJeanthathe wanted toknowifshewasfreeonMonday. “The basic structure of the clause is N + V + ?” What follows the verb depends on the verb and its meaning, not “abstract grammatical considerations” All clauses have a subject The first noun is the subject Circumstances / circumstantial elements can be added, but their position depends on intended meaning.

49 Willis (2003: 73) Police were searching for an eight-year-old boy. Where does “last night?” fit into this sentence? Last night police were searching for an eight-year-old boy. Police were last night searching for an eight-year-old boy. Police were searching last night for an eight-year-old boy. Police were searching for an eight-year-old boy last night.

50 Tape-recorded squawks of a seagull in distress have enabled water authorities in Strathclyde to cleanse two reservoirs at Milngavie, near Glasgow, by frightening away an estimated 5000 seagulls. To Willis, complexity lies in the complexity of the noun phrases (and the fact that it is common to find structures embedded within other structures) Tape-recorded squawks of a seagull in distress have enabled water authorities in Strathclyde to cleanse two reservoirs at Milngavie, near Glasgow, by frightening away an estimated 5000 seagulls.

51 Hoey (2005) takes the opening sentence from a Bill Bryson travel book: In winter Hammerfest is a thirty-hour ride by bus from Oslo, though why anyone would want to go there in winter is a question worth considering. and compares it to: Through winter, rides between Oslo and Hammerfest use thirty hours up in a bus, though why travellers would select to ride there then might be pondered. The explanation is provided by attention to COLLOCATION and COLLIGATION. For example, Hoey’s corpus tells him that: 59% of uses of IN WINTER relate to a clause whose verb is PRESENT SIMPLE 54% of uses of IN THE WINTER relate to a clause whose verb is PAST SIMPLE IN WINTER is more likely to occur with “relational process verbs” than “material process verbs”

52 What do you already know about the University of Essex? Make notes on your answers to the following questions: Where is Essex university? How many campuses are there? How old is it? How many students are there? (who are they?) Is the university famous for anything? Is it a good university? Do you know any interesting 'facts' about the university?

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55 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

56 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

57 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

58 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

59 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

60 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

61 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

62 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

63 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

64 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

65 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

66 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

67 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

68 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

69 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

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71 me examples of two or three complex sentences – the more difficult the better! It’s a good idea to choose any sentences that have caused you difficulty in your reading for this course. They can be from your own writing if you like. Task

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