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Homework from last week Last week I asked you to send me examples of long and complex sentences. Please send me some!

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Presentation on theme: "Homework from last week Last week I asked you to send me examples of long and complex sentences. Please send me some!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Homework from last week Last week I asked you to send me examples of long and complex sentences. Please send me some!

2 IA Session Eight Semantics

3 From Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics

4 tree word / referent

5 oink! word / referent oink!

6 Essex University word / referent

7 ???? word / referent

8 hope word / referent

9 tree word / referent

10 tree word / denotata

11 Sense relations “Sense is an internal meaning relation. Sense relations hold between words within the vocabulary.” (Jackson and Zé Amvela, 2000 : 106)

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13 HOMOPHONY HOMONYMY POLYSEMY flour and flower, meat and meet South Bank and Lloyds Bank Mickey Mouse, wireless mouse, head in headache and head in headteacher Did you match any of these words and expressions? What is the relationship between these sets of pairs?

14 HOMOPHONY HOMONYMY POLYSEMY flour and flower, meat and meet South Bank and Lloyds Bank Mickey Mouse, wireless mouse, head in headache and head in headteacher

15 HYPONYMY flower and rose tree and oak building and house MERONYMYhouse and dining room hand and knuckle day and afternoon plant and shoot Did you match any of these words and expressions? What is the relationship between these sets of pairs?

16 HYPONYMY flower and rose tree and oak building and house MERONYMYhouse and dining room hand and knuckle day and afternoon plant and shoot

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19 METAPHORLife is a…

20 METAPHORLife is a… Hope is a…

21 METAPHORLife is a… Hope is a… Opportunity is a…

22 METAPHORLife is a… Hope is a… Opportunity is a… Time is…

23 METAPHORLife is a… Hope is a… Opportunity is a… Time is… Love is a…

24 METAPHOR and METONYMY When do babies start crawling? The traffic crawled to a halt. The morning crawled past. The UK Government and Downing Street The US President and The White House

25 Word Association What’s the first thing that comes into your head when you see / hear the word… puppy baby cake tree father

26 Synonyms You will see a number of word clouds. In each cloud, match words with their synonyms, and try to find a connection between all the words in the cloud. What is the theme that unites these example synonyms?

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37 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

38 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

39 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust privilege of power = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

40 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust privilege of power strikingly= equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

41 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust privilege of power strikingly with effort = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

42 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust privilege of power strikingly with effort with distain = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

43 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust privilege of power strikingly with effort with distain with pleasure = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

44 Synonym 1 ConnotationSynonym 2 ambiguous famous hate misuse new obtain proud recollection simulate + deliberate disreputably with disgust privilege of power strikingly with effort with distain with pleasure with craftiness = equivocal notorious loathe abuse novel procure haughty reminiscence feign

45 Antonyms

46 What’s the opposite of…?

47 What do the words in each box have in common?

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51 To recap…

52 SYNONYMY (LOOSE) (STRICT) find and discover pavement and sidewalk famous and notorious new and novel western and occidental heaven and sky, ghost and spirit

53 GRADABLE ANTONYMS COMPLEMENTARY ANTONYMS CONVERSES happy and unhappy, logical and illogical long and short, young and old, beautiful and ugly alive and dead, asleep and awake above and below, husband and wife

54 Sense

55 What is a fish?

56 What components define a fish?

57 Item / ComponentsHumanMatureMale man+++ woman++- boy+-+ girl+-- COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS

58 What’s the difference between a knife, fork, spoon, and chopsticks?

59 COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS Item / component cutlery can be used to eat soup has a handle comes as a pair cuts safe for children has prongs (tines) knife fork spoon chopsticks

60 What’s the difference between….cook, boil, bake, fry, braise, stew, grill, and poach?

61 Item / components pandishcovered uses liquid uses water uses oil inside the oven on a hob heat applied from above can be done to eggs cook+ / - boil bake fry braise /+ -- stew /+ -- grill+/ /+-+- poach

62 Definitions and difficulties

63 COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS Item / component cutlery can be used to eat soup has a handle comes as a pair cuts safe for children has prongs knife fork spoon chopsticks A ______ is a piece of cutlery which has a handle and is used for cutting food. It neither has prongs nor comes in pairs. It cannot be used to eat soup and it is not safe for children to use.

64 But…is this a spoon?

65 …is this a cat?

66 PROTOTYPES Imagine a bird…Does it look like this?

67 PROTOTYPES

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69 Beg, entreat, beseech, implore, supplicate and importune all signify the making of an appeal which is likely to be refused or demurred at. A person ________for what he/she cannot claim as a right; ________ suggests earnestness, insistence, and sometimes self-abasement. By ________ing someone, one hopes to persuade him / her by earnest pleading and reasoning. ________ and ________ convey eager anxiety which seeks to inspire sympathy or pity. ________may be stronger than ________, with a suggestion of tearfulness or evident anguish. ________ adds to ________ a humble, prayerful attitude…________ denotes persistence with one’s requests to the point of annoyance or even harassment. begs beg entreat Beseech implore Implore beseech Supplicateentreat Importune (from the 1991 Longman Dictionary of the English Language)

70 Can you identify the following four words from their definitions, taken from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Online? 1._____________: of a high standard or quality [≠ bad, poor] 2._____________: [uncountable] a feeling of unhappiness because something is not as good as you expected, or has not happened in the way you hoped 3._____________: when something _____________, there is an event, especially one that is not planned [= occur] 4._____________: to happen

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72 SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES from Jackson and Zé Amvela (2000 : 127) after Wierzbicka (1996)

73 Semantic fields

74 ????

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78 Semantic sets and collocation

79 Hoey (2005) Train as a…

80 Hoey (2005) train trains trained training as ateacher doctor nurse lawyer painter dancer barrister chef Braille shorthand typist

81 Hoey (2005) train trains trained training as ateacher doctor nurse lawyer painter dancer barrister chef Braille shorthand typist SKILLED ROLE OR OCCUPATION

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83 Semantic Set (from Francis et al, 1996) Verbs following the pattern VERB + for + NP Purpose of + for NOUN (Willis) endure, keep, live, last extend, stretch wait plan, arrange, provide prepare, study, train pay, answer, apologise report, sign on, show up, enrol hunt, look, shop, listen beg, send, shout, call act, fight, play, speak substitute, stand in pray, speak up, vote feel, grieve

84 Semantic Set (from Francis et al, 1996) Verbs following the pattern VERB + for + NP Purpose of + for NOUN (Willis) LASTendure, keep, live, lastTIME LASTextend, stretchDISTANCE WAITwaitREASON WHY PLANplan, arrange, provideREASON WHY PREPAREprepare, study, trainREASON WHY COMPENSATEpay, answer, apologiseREASON WHY VOLUNTEERreport, sign on, show up, enrolREASON WHY SEARCHhunt, look, shop, listenASK / LOOK FOR ASKbeg, send, shout, callASK / LOOK FOR WORKact, fight, play, speakWHO WANTS OR NEEDS DEPUTISEsubstitute, stand inWHO WANTS OR NEEDS ARGUEpray, speak up, voteWHO WANTS OR NEEDS CAREfeel, grieveWHO WANTS OR NEEDS

85 Back to the sentence…

86 Hoey (2005) takes the opening sentence from a Bill Bryson travel book: In winter Hammerfest is a thirty-hour ride by bus from Oslo, though why anyone would want to go there in winter is a question worth considering. and compares it to: Through winter, rides between Oslo and Hammerfest use thirty hours up in a bus, though why travellers would select to ride there then might be pondered. The explanation is provided by attention to COLLOCATION and COLLIGATION. For example, Hoey’s corpus tells him that: 59% of uses of IN WINTER relate to a clause whose verb is PRESENT SIMPLE 54% of uses of IN THE WINTER relate to a clause whose verb is PAST SIMPLE IN WINTER is more likely to occur with “relational process verbs” than “material process verbs”

87 What do you already know about the University of Essex? Make notes on your answers to the following questions: Where is Essex university? How many campuses are there? How old is it? How many students are there? (who are they?) Is the university famous for anything? Is it a good university? Do you know any interesting 'facts' about the university?

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90 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

91 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

92 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

93 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

94 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

95 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

96 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

97 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

98 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

99 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

100 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

101 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

102 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

103 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

104 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PATTERNS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE Students from families with incomes of up to £25,000 will be entitled to a more generous student maintenance grant of up to £3,250, which is non- repayable.

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106 References and further reading Ballard, K The Frameworks of English, 2 nd Edition, Palgrave MacMillan Cobb, T The Compleat Lexical Tutor. Available online at ej.org/ej31/m2.html [Accessed 27 November 2011]http://tesl- ej.org/ej31/m2.html Culpeper, J. et al (eds) 2009 English Language: Description, Variation and Context. Palgrave Macmillan Francis, S., Hunston, S. and Manning, E Grammar Patterns 1: Verbs. Harper Collins Hoey, M Lexical Priming, Routledge Jackson, H. and Ze Amvela, E Words, Meaning and Vocabulary : An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology, Continuum Leech, G Semantics, Penguin Schmitt, N Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press Wierzbicka, A Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford University Press Willis, D Rules, Patterns and Words, Cambridge University Press Yule, G The Study of Language, Cambridge University Press

107 Don’t forget… …to send me some examples of long and complex sentences.


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