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UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 1 History and Evolution of IO History and Evolution of IO Prepared by the Joint IO Center.

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Presentation on theme: "UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 1 History and Evolution of IO History and Evolution of IO Prepared by the Joint IO Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 1 History and Evolution of IO History and Evolution of IO Prepared by the Joint IO Center

2 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 2 Learning Objectives Why is it important? What is different?

3 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 3 Information Operations Focus Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems... Systems, people, & facilities supporting information- dependent functions Attacks take many forms: physical, cyber, psychological, etc.

4 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 4 The IO Battlefield Info systems critical to military operations “Our present theory is to destroy personnel, our new theory should be to destroy command. Not after the enemy’s personnel has been disorganized, but before it has been attacked, so that it may be found in a state of disorganization when attacked.” J.F.C. Fuller Memorandum: Strategic Paralysis as the Objective of the Decisive Attack, 1918 Info technologies used - secondary to “real” weapons

5 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 5 History Supporting and secondary Primary and fully integrated Desert Storm Civil War World War I World War II Vietnam Somalia

6 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 6 American Civil War Use of telegraph (30 wpm) Picket riders for battlefield awareness Attacks on lines of communications Spies, codes, deception Perception management

7 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 7 World War I Massive battlefield attrition Use of air forces for battlefield awareness

8 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 8 World War II Strategic attacks against infrastructure Double-edged sword of “Enigma” Communications jamming C2 targets - John Wayne’s radioman Deception critical to success of first fully integrated plan ’s technology

9 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 9 Vietnam-Tet Offensive Who won the Tet Offensive? North Vietnam victorious in the long run US decision makers crippled by public opinion Public opinion shifted North Vietnam won the media war (“body bag effect”) US won the ground war

10 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 10 The Cold War One of which was the US’s demonstrated technological superiority and ability to conduct a coherent information campaign (PSYOP and deception). Can be viewed as a technology contest won by the West for many reasons...

11 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 11 Desert Storm The first “Information” War Coordinated planning for EW, OPSEC, deception, PSYOP, destruction Targeting against leadership and military C2 Integration of spaceborne, airborne and land based communications and intelligence

12 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 12 Somalia Intelligence deficiencies Communications countermeasures Psychological Operations - Manipulation of mass media “Turning around your high-powered, fully wired expeditionary force in Somalia with a single, 30-second videoclip. - Weaponry by CNN” “Turning around your high-powered, fully wired expeditionary force in Somalia with a single, 30-second videoclip. - Weaponry by CNN”

13 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 13 Desert Storm Strong evidence to support Desert Storm as first US offensive info war Less evidence exists that defensive IO was given much consideration by either side Post-war analysis highlighted numerous serious exploitable IO deficiencies with coalition forces OSD, JCS, and service IO functions were created

14 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 14 Desert Storm “Iraq lost the war before it even began. This was a war of intelligence, EW, command and control, and counterintelligence. Iraqi troops were blinded and deafened...Modern war can be won by informatika and that is now vital for both the US and the USSR.” LtG Bogdanov, Chief of the General Staff, Center for Operational and Strategic Studies, Oct 1991 Patriot missile hits SCUD

15 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 15 Afghanistan Joint/Special Operations Lethal/Non-Lethal Targeting Area of Operations/Influence “The mission of destroying missile sites and arms depots is almost the easy part. The critical task … is to continue to reshape the information environment and target points of fracture in the opposition.” P.W Singer, Foreign Policy Studies

16 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 16 Is IO THAT Important? Revolution in Military Affairs or Buzzword du jour?

17 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 17 Information Technology Revolution INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, specifically the use of COMPUTERS and NETWORKING, is a worldwide revolution affecting every aspect of human life from industry to government to entertainment.

18 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 18 Information Technologies What is Different? Target access points are changing and may not be in geographical proximity to the target. There are few geographical boundaries in the information infrastructure. is changing. The military can no longer create and control the battlespace

19 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 19 Information Technologies What is Different? is changing. Technology leadership shifting from military to civilian sector Info technology inexpensive and readily available Impact of computers and networking Electromagnetic spectrum (including satellites) and landline

20 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 20 Information Technologies What is Different? is changing. Changing geographic, political, spatial, & time boundaries Selective targeting/ critical nodes Rules of engagement and legal issues Changing military mission (more targets) New threat (state/politically sponsored, others) Minimal forces in “harms way,” Precision targeting Conservation of resources

21 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 21 Information Technologies What is Different? is a major factor. Technology is rapidly moving - outpacing controls Demand for real time, highly reliable, manageable information Must anticipate the future to stay ahead (18 month life cycle - or less)

22 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 22 New Age Industrial Information Legacy support institutions are becoming less relevant All support is under examination for relevancy Military organizations and other existing institutions under scrutiny (NSA, CIA, etc...)

23 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 23 IO - Lucrative Tool Anonymous Adversaries Simple Technology Ambiguous Law Many Targets Uncertain Responsibilities Poorly Defined Remedies No Quick Fixes Deterrence = Infrastructure Resiliency (“Takes a licking and keeps on ticking”)

24 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 24 Challenges Immediate No common vocabulary Defense ignored or focused on classified systems Intelligence system challenged Issues extend beyond DoD Responsibilities are widely scattered I&W: traditional methods are ineffective

25 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 25 Challenges Long Term Technologies are revolutionizing... Information collection, processing, dissemination Command & control Conduct of operations Requires development of... Expanded collection means New doctrine (supported by training & education) Must make correct decisions about investments in information technologies and human capabilities

26 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 26 Potential Threats Information technologies are available to all (and many are interested) No “rear area” in IO As US reliance on information grows the threat becomes more complex, sophisticated, clandestine Rapid introduction of advanced technologies brings increased capability to adversaries Information can be our vulnerability as well as our strength.

27 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 27 That’s What’s New How Does All This Impact JIOC? is key. has a new role. Rapidly emerging technologies Growing dependence on computers - by both weapons and C2 The Information Age is creating a new world. The effectiveness of IO increases. Our vulnerability to IO increases.

28 UNCLASSIFIED January 2000 History and Evolution of IO 28 Summary Key Points Not a new concept (origins in writings of Sun Tzu circa 300 BC). However the Information Age elevates it to a new level. Information Age technologies are revolutionizing military operations. However legacy information systems remain and must be considered in mission planning. Dependence on Information Age technologies creates new vulnerabilities. (Use leads to dependence which creates vulnerabilities.)


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