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CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Roy Patterson Centre for the Neural Basis of Hearing Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience University.

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Presentation on theme: "CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Roy Patterson Centre for the Neural Basis of Hearing Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience University."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Roy Patterson Centre for the Neural Basis of Hearing Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience University of Cambridge Part II: Lent Term 2014: ( 2 of 4) Central Auditory Processing Lecture slides, sounds and background papers on Lecture slides on CamTools https://camtools.cam.ac.uk/portal.html

3 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Act III: the processing of communication sounds in the auditory system (signal processing) Act I: the information in communication sounds (animal calls, speech, musical notes) The Overture Act IV: the processing of communication sounds (anatomy, physiology, brain imaging) Act II: the perception of communication sounds and the robustness of perception to changes in acoustic scale

4 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Decreasing VTL Increasing GPR Kawahara and Irino (2004). Principles of speech manipulation system STRAIGHT. In Speech separation by humans and machines, P. Divenyi (Ed.), Kluwer Academic, ( S s ) (1/S f ) Auditory perception is robust to changes in S s and S f

5 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Decreasing VTL Increasing GPR Rana catesbeiana (1/S f ) ( S s )

6 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Low High Pitch Long Short VTL Time [Patterson, Smith, van Dinther and Walters (2008)] (S f ) ( S s )

7 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Spectra on a linear frequency axis Low High Pitch Long Short VTL (S f ) ( S s )

8 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Recognition of Scaled Vowels Smith, Patterson, Turner, Kawahara and Irino JASA (2005) /a/ /u/ /i/ /e/ /o/ pdn.cam.ac.uk/groups/cnbh/teaching/lectures/SPTKIjasa05.pdf mean

9 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge waveform and spectrum of a child’s /a/ Frequency on a logarithmic axis (octaves) SsSs SfSf

10 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge I: Humans can extract the content of the communication without being confused by size differences Psychophysical experiments confirm: The Perception of Communication Sounds: Summary

11 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Speaker Size estimates for vowels varying in GPR and VTL log(VTL) log(GPR) Size Smith and Patterson (2005) JASA pdn.cam.ac.uk/groups/cnbh/teaching/lectures/SPjasa05.pdf

12 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge II: Humans can extract the size information without being confused by differences in the content I: Humans can extract the content of the communication without being confused by size differences Psychophysical experiments also confirm: The Perception of Communication Sounds: Summary

13 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge S f : the discrimination of S f is more tricky S s : the semitones on the keyboard differ by 5.9% Discrimination of S s and S f Experiments with vowels show that people can reliably discriminate a 2% difference in S s Present two vowels and ask: Which vowel came from the larger speaker?

14 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge waveform and spectrum of a child’s /a/ Frequency on a logarithmic axis (octaves) SsSs SfSf

15 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Syllable database ma na la ra wa ya ba da ga pa ta ka sa fa va za xa ha me ne le re we ye be de ge pe te ke se fe ve ze xe he mi ni li ri wi yi bi di gi pi ti ki si fi vi zi xi hi mo no lo ro wo yo bo do go po to ko so fo vo zo xo ho mu nu lu ru wu yu bu du gu pu tu ku su fu vu zu xu hu am an al ar aw ay ab ad ag ap at ak as af av az ax ah em en el er ew ey eb ed eg ep et ek es ef ev ez ex eh im in il ir iw iy ib id ig ip it ik is if iv iz ix ih om on ol or ow oy ob od og op ot ok os of ov oz ox oh um un ul ur uw uy ub ud ug up ut uk us uf uv uz ux uh aa ee ii oo uu CV’s VC’s vowels Sonorants StopsFricatives mi en ka it so us Ives, Smith and Patterson (2005) JASA Kawahara and Irino (2004). The vocoder STRAIGHT. Kluwer Academic large (voiced) small (voiced)

16 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Speaker-size discrimination with syllables interval 1 interval 2 pitch /wa/ /et/ /am/ /ku/ /ma/ /te//om/ /se/ Present two intervals of syllables and ask: Which is the larger speaker? VTL = xVTL = x + Δx The only consistent cue is a difference in VTL ( S f ) The overall level is varied randomly between the intervals. The pitch contours are different. The syllables are randomly chosen for the intervals. Ives, Smith and Patterson (2005) JASA

17 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Experiment: S f discrimination thresholds for five different people Glottal pulse rate / Hz SER SMALL MALE LARGE MALE SMALL CHILDDWARF CASTRATO Ives, Smith and Patterson, JASA (2005) ( S s ) VTL/cm SfSf

18 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Results: all subjects, all syllables DWARF SMALL CHILD SMALL MALE LARGE MALE CASTRATO Trials test as smaller Ives, Smith and Patterson (2005) JASA % reported larger

19 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Results: all subjects, all syllables DWARF SMALL CHILD SMALL MALE LARGE MALE CASTRATO grand average JND for the experiment average JND across syllable category for specific speaker type. basically 5%, independent of acoustic scale

20 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge II: Humans can extract the size information without being confused by the content of the communication III: Auditory perception is amazingly robust to changes in acoustic scale (S s and/or S f ) in communication sounds I: Humans can extract the content of the communication without being confused by the size information Psychophysical experiments confirm: The acoustic scale values in communication sounds tell us which individual, within a population, is speaking or which instrument, within a family, is playing The Perception of Communication Sounds: Summary

21 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge End of Act II Thank you Smith, D. R. R. and Patterson, R. D. (2005). "The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex and age," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, Ives, D. T., Smith, D. R. R. and Patterson, R. D. (2005). "Discrimination of speaker size from syllable phrases," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118 (6), Smith, D. R. R., Patterson, R. D., Turner, R., Kawahara, H., and Irino, T. (2005). "The processing and perception of size information in speech sounds," J. Acoust. Soc. Am.117,

22 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Concurrent Speech and the cocktail party Colin Cherry (1952)

23 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Syllable database ma na la ra wa ya ba da ga pa ta ka sa fa va za xa ha me ne le re we ye be de ge pe te ke se fe ve ze xe he mi ni li ri wi yi bi di gi pi ti ki si fi vi zi xi hi mo no lo ro wo yo bo do go po to ko so fo vo zo xo ho mu nu lu ru wu yu bu du gu pu tu ku su fu vu zu xu hu am an al ar aw ay ab ad ag ap at ak as af av az ax ah em en el er ew ey eb ed eg ep et ek es ef ev ez ex eh im in il ir iw iy ib id ig ip it ik is if iv iz ix ih om on ol or ow oy ob od og op ot ok os of ov oz ox oh um un ul ur uw uy ub ud ug up ut uk us uf uv uz ux uh aa ee ii oo uu CV’s VC’s vowels Sonorants StopsFricatives

24 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge

25 concurrent-speech: experimental paradigm Identify the syllable in the interval that stays lit wu osh Vestergaard et al (2009) JASA

26 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Robustness of speech perception

27 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Target Distracter ms

28 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Sonorants (semivowels)Stops (plosives)Fricatives de osh ez ki lu Target triplet: de mi osh Masker triplet: ki lu ez Concurrently at 0 dB SNR Pre-cursor, 0 dB SNR Concurrent-speech paradigm Vestergaard et al (2009) JASA mi Target Distracter ms

29 CNBH, PDN, University of Cambridge Vestergaard, Fyson and Patterson, JASA, 2009 SfSf SsSs


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