Presentation on theme: "Battle of Gaugamela pt II Aim: to understand and assess the accounts of the battle of Gaugamela. Content quiz on the next slide!"— Presentation transcript:
Battle of Gaugamela pt II Aim: to understand and assess the accounts of the battle of Gaugamela. Content quiz on the next slide!
1)Who wrote a ‘biography’? 2)Who wrote a ‘History’? 3)What was the 18ft pike called? 4)What part of the Army did Alexander fight with? 5)What part of the army did Parmenio fight with? 6)Where did Alexander first fight the Persians? 7)Who was in charge of the ’Persian’ force? 8)Were they really Persian? 9)What battle was very similar to this? 10)How did Alexander attack Tyre at first? 11) Who came to his aid at Tyre? 12) What title did Alexander get in Egypt? 13) Where did he go to get this confirmed? 14) What effect did this have on the Egyptians? 15) What effect did it have on his men? 16) What was different about the battle field at Gaugamela? 17) What weapons did Darius bring? 18) What did Parmenio suggest? 19) What did Alexander think? 20) What did Plutarch say Alexander did the night before the battle? 21) What did the Persians do that night?
1)Plutarch 2)Arrian 3)Sarissa 4)Companion Cavalry 5)Phalanx/ Foot Companions 6)River Granicus 7)Memnon 8)Mostly Greek Mercenaries 9)Battle of Issus 10)Building a Mole 11) Cyprus/ Phoenicians 12) Pharoah/ Son on Ammon 13) Oracle at Siwah 14) Accepted him as the true king of Egypt 15) Didn’t like it- turning ‘foreign’ 16) Vast, open and flat- no river 17) Scythe bearing chariots & Elephants 18) Attack at night 19) Wait until morning 20) Slept (as if he had already won) 21) Stayed in battle formation
Onto the battle The main problem with Gaugamela is that the accounts vary so much. Many are patchy at best. Others are largely unreliable. There are a few key similarities however. The main focus of all accounts is Alexander’s charge directly at Darius.
Working out what happened First we need an overview. Task:Task: Watch the (not overly accurate) video. Add events to your map/ timeline Chapter 8 (up to 44.33) Extension: Spot any historical inaccuracies!
Broad picture The Persians attack using Chariots Alexander rides to the right, tracked by Persian cavalry Persians Attack en mass on the Left Alexander and Cavalry ride through the hole in the Persian lines (caused by stretching them out to the right). Parmenio is forced to retreat but holds them. Darius flees, but Alexander is forced to let him go to help Parmenio.
To the sources Blues- Arrian 13-15.2 Greens- Plutarch 32-33 Highlight and annotate the main aspects of the battle (and how they are recorded) You may want to summarise each paragraph at the side. Pay particular attention to how the following are recorded: The Chariot attack. Alexander’s attack from the right. Parmenio’s defence on the left Persian attack on the baggage Darius’ escape
FRONT Valentinas Tiegan Rastra Ameika Matthew Dora Raeesa Oscar Jess Fazan Uma Daniel Kyia Yusuf Sam Rachel Ahad Sandesh Khadeja Praise Fatima Farwa Reshma Rory Iqra Sarah
Time to share Compare the different accounts: Annotate your copies of the sources: Draw a chart like this (full page) and summarise your findings: EventArrianPlutarchDiodorus
EventArrianPlutarchDiodorus Persian Attack Alexander’s attack from the right Parmenio Persian attack on the baggage Darius’ escape
Now for Diodorus! In pairs, read the sections of Diodorus you have been given Add details to your charts Underline/ highlight (on chart) and major contradictions to Arrian/ Plutarch
Review- Ao3 time Can you give 3 examples of why Plutarch/ Arrian may not be reliable (based on their accounts of the battle)? 1) _______________________________________ 2) _______________________________________ 3) _______________________________________
Poor old Parmenio Parmenio gets most of the blame for Darius’ escape here. Which of the sources is most critical of him? Which is the least critical of him?
Why is there disagreement (1) ? Arrian relied heavily on Ptolemy for his account of the battle. Ptolemy was in Alexander’s personal guard and fought with the Cavalry. Problem… Ptolemy would have had little knowledge of what was actually happening on the left.
Plutarch is more concerned with Alexander (and his armour) than the battle. If Alexander was so ‘great’surely he would have captured Darius. Problem… Plutarch is overly critical of Parmenio in order to aggrandise Alexander. Why is there disagreement (2) ?
Although they won, Gaugamela was not the decisive battle Alexander wanted. Parmenio is later disgraced and executed. Problem… Parmenio becomes an easy scape goat for Alexander’s inability to capture Darius. Why is there disagreement (3) ?
Many of the first hand accounts (like Ptoloemy) came from Alexander’s friends and favourites. Alexander’s anger/ frustration at Darius’ escape will have been VERY evident to them. As most of the favourites were in the cavalry, Alexander’s failure would reflect on them. Problem… Parmenio takes the blame for the Cavalry’s inability to capture Darius. Why is there disagreement (4) ?
Plenary How far do accounts of the battle of Gaugamela serve as an accurate account of the battle OR stand to discredit Parmenio ? ‘Extended Learning’: Exam question on Gaugamela