Presentation on theme: "Created by Chadrenne Blouin To Kill a Mockingbird Historical Context."— Presentation transcript:
Created by Chadrenne Blouin To Kill a Mockingbird Historical Context
Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Great Depression & The Dust Bowl
The Great Depression The Great Depression (also known as the Great Slump) was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as The beginning of the Great Depression in the United States is associated with the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday… …the end is associated with the onset of the war economy of World War II, beginning around ssion
The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl, or the "dirty thirties", was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940)… …caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation or other techniques to prevent erosion. It was a mostly man-made disaster caused when virgin top soil of the Great Plains was exposed to deep plowing, killing the natural grasses - the grasses normally kept the soil in place and moisture trapped, even during periods of drought and high winds.
The Dust Bowl However, during the drought of the 1930s, with the grasses destroyed, the soil dried, turned to dust, and blew away eastwards and southwards in large dark clouds. At times the clouds blackened the sky, reaching all the way to East Coast cities like New York and Washington D.C., with much of the soil deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The Dust Bowl consisted of 100 million acres, centered on the panhandles of Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.
Hoovervilles A Hooverville was the popular name for a shantytown… These settlements were often formed in unpleasant neighborhoods or desolate areas and consisted of dozens or hundreds of shacks and tents that were temporary residences of those left unemployed and homeless by the Depression. People slept in anything from open piano crates to the ground. …Most people, however, resorted to building their residences out of boxwood, cardboard, and any scraps of metal they could find. Some individuals even lived in water mains. Most of these unemployed residents of the Hoovervilles begged for food from those who had housing during this era. States
Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Origin of Jim crow
Minstrel Shows … in the US they began in the 1830s, with working class white men dressing up as plantation slaves. These men imitated black musical and dance forms, combining savage parody of black Americans with genuine fondness for African American cultural forms. White performers would blacken their faces with burnt cork or greasepaint, dress in outlandish costumes, and then perform songs and skits that mocked African Americans. Before the Civil War, black men could not appear in minstrel shows--custom prohibited it. But there are several instances of black men putting on minstrel makeup and appearing as white men imitating black men. Later, in the twentieth century, several of the most famous minstrels were actually black men who wore makeup--the most famous being Bert Williams, who performed in blackface into the 1920s. rel/minstrel.html
These three stock characters were among several that reappeared in minstrel shows throughout the nineteenth century. "Jim Crow" was the stereotypical carefree slave, "Mr. Tambo" a joyous musician, and "Zip Coon" a free black attempting to "put on airs" or rise above his station. The parody in minstrel shows was often savage. el/minstrel.html
Created by Chadrenne Blouin Before The Jim crow laws
Before the Jim Crow Laws …by 1900, the term was generally identified with those racist laws and actions that deprived African Americans of their civil rights by defining blacks as inferior to whites, as members of a caste of subordinate people. The emergence of segregation in the South actually began immediately after the Civil War when the formerly enslaved people acted quickly to establish their own churches and schools separate from whites. At the same time, most southern states tried to limit the economic and physical freedom of the formerly enslaved by adopting laws known as Black Codes.
Before the Jim Crow Laws These early legal attempts at white-imposed segregation and discrimination were short-lived. During the period of Congressional Reconstruction, which lasted from 1866 to 1876, the federal government declared illegal all such acts of legal discrimination against African Americans. …the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, along with the two Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the various Enforcement Acts of the early 1870s, curtailed the ability of southern whites to formally deprive blacks of their civil rights.
before the Jim Crow Laws … African Americans were able to make great progress in building their own institutions, passing civil rights laws, and electing officials to public office. In response to these achievements, southern whites launched a vicious, illegal war against southern blacks and their white Republican allies.
before the Jim Crow Laws In most places, whites carried out this war in the late 1860s and early 1870s under the cover of secret organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. Thousands of African Americans were killed, brutalized, and terrorized in these bloody years. The federal government attempted to stop the bloodshed by sending in troops and holding investigations, but its efforts were far too limited.
Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Beginning of the Jim Crow Laws
Beginning of the Jim Crow Laws In 1877 …the federal government essentially abandoned all efforts at protecting the civil rights of southern blacks. It was not long before a stepped-up reign of white terror erupted in the South. The decade of the 1880s was characterized by mob lynchings, a vicious system of convict prison farms and chain gangs, the horribly debilitating debt peonage of sharecropping, the imposition of a legal color line in race relations, and a variety of laws that blatantly discriminated against blacks.
Beginning of the Jim Crow Laws Some southern states…moved to legally impose segregation on public transportation…Blacks were required to sit in a special car reserved for blacks known as "The Jim Crow Car," even if they had bought first-class tickets.
Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Jim Crow Laws & Segregation
the Jim Crow Laws Some states also passed so-called miscegenation laws banning interracial marriages. These bans were, in the opinion of some historians, the ultimate segregation laws. –They clearly announced that blacks were so inferior to whites that any mixing of the two threatened the very survival of the superior white race. Almost all southern states passed statutes restricting suffrage in the years from 1871 to 1889, including poll taxes in some cases. And the effects were devastating: over half the blacks voting in Georgia and South Carolina in 1880, for example, had vanished from the polls in Of those who did vote, many of their ballots were stolen, misdirected to opposing candidates, or simply not counted.
the Jim Crow Laws In the 1890s, starting with Mississippi, most southern states began more systematically to disfranchise black males by imposing voter registration restrictions, such as literacy tests, poll taxes, and the white primary. These new rules of the political game were used by white registrars to deny voting privileges to blacks at the registration place rather than at the ballot box, which had previously been done by means of fraud and force. By 1910, every state of the former Confederacy had adopted laws that segregated all aspects of life (especially schools and public places) wherein blacks and whites might socially mingle or come into contact.
Reasons for Segregation Many lower-class whites, for example, hoped to wrest political power from merchants and large landowners who controlled the vote of their indebted black tenants by taking away black suffrage. Some whites also feared a new generation of so- called "uppity" blacks, men and women born after slavery who wanted their full rights as American citizens.
Reasons for Segregation At the same time there appeared throughout America the new pseudo-science of eugenics that reinforced the racist views of black inferiority. Finally, many southern whites feared that the federal government might intervene in southern politics if the violence and fraud continued. They believed that by legally ending suffrage for blacks, the violence would also end. Even some blacks supported this idea and were willing to sacrifice their right to vote in return for an end to the terror.
Why Resistance to Segregation was difficult …the system of land tenancy, known as sharecropping, left most blacks economically dependent upon planter-landlords and merchant suppliers. …the white terror at the hands of lynch mobs threatened all members of the black family--adults and children alike. –This reality made it nearly impossible for blacks to stand up to Jim Crow because such actions might bring down the wrath of the white mob on one's parents, brothers, spouse, and children. Few black families, moreover, were economically well off enough to buck the local white power structure of banks, merchants, and landlords.
After Disenfranchisement White terror did not end--as some blacks had hoped--with the disfranchisement of southern black men. To enforce the new legal order of segregation, southern whites often resorted to even more brutalizing acts of mob terror, including race riots and ritualized lynching, than had been practiced even by the old Klan of the 1870s. … the 1890s ushered in a more formally racist South--one in which white supremacists used law and mob terror to deprive blacks of the vote and to define them in life and popular culture as an inferior people.
Court Actions the US Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional it …also ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited state governments from discriminating against people because of race but did not restrict private organizations or individuals from doing so. This meant that places like railroads, theaters, hotels, restaurants, etc. could legally institute segregation.
Court Actions Plessy v. Ferguson –Separate but Equal –R–Ruled that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of equal rights if the accommodations were equal Cumming v. Board of Education –L–Laws establishing separate schools for whites were valid, even if they provided no comparable schools for blacks
Jim Crow Laws By 1914 every Southern state had passed laws that created two separate societies; one black, the other white. Blacks and whites could not: –Ride together in the same railroad cars –Sit in the same waiting rooms –Use the same bathrooms –Eat in the same restaurants –Sit in the same theaters Blacks were denied access to: –Parks –Beaches –Picnic areas –Many hospitals
Examples of Jim Crow Laws Alabama: –Health Care- no person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed –Transportation- All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate tickets windows for the white and colored races –Public Facilities- It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards.
Examples of Jim Crow Laws Maryland –Marriage- all marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between a negro and a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. –Transportation- All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers.
End of Jim Crow Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas –Declared segregation of public schools unconstitutional The beginning of the Civil Rights Movement The beginning of the end of the Jim Crow laws
Created by Chadrenne Blouin Segregation & the fight for civil rights "We are confronted primarily with a moral issue… whether all Americans are to be afforded equal rights and equal opportunities, whether we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated." --John Fitzgerald Kennedy-- Referring to race riots in Alabama in a radio broadcast 11th June 1963.
1963: Medgar Evans Mississipi field secretary for the NAACP, is shot and killed in an ambush in front of his home, following a historic broadcast on the subject of civil rights by President John F. Kennedy nfo/id34.html