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Created by Chadrenne Blouin To Kill a Mockingbird Historical Context.

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1 Created by Chadrenne Blouin To Kill a Mockingbird Historical Context

2 Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Great Depression & The Dust Bowl

3 The Great Depression The Great Depression (also known as the Great Slump) was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as The beginning of the Great Depression in the United States is associated with the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday… …the end is associated with the onset of the war economy of World War II, beginning around ssion

4 The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl, or the "dirty thirties", was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940)… …caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation or other techniques to prevent erosion. It was a mostly man-made disaster caused when virgin top soil of the Great Plains was exposed to deep plowing, killing the natural grasses - the grasses normally kept the soil in place and moisture trapped, even during periods of drought and high winds.

5 The Dust Bowl However, during the drought of the 1930s, with the grasses destroyed, the soil dried, turned to dust, and blew away eastwards and southwards in large dark clouds. At times the clouds blackened the sky, reaching all the way to East Coast cities like New York and Washington D.C., with much of the soil deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The Dust Bowl consisted of 100 million acres, centered on the panhandles of Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.

6 Hoovervilles A Hooverville was the popular name for a shantytown… These settlements were often formed in unpleasant neighborhoods or desolate areas and consisted of dozens or hundreds of shacks and tents that were temporary residences of those left unemployed and homeless by the Depression. People slept in anything from open piano crates to the ground. …Most people, however, resorted to building their residences out of boxwood, cardboard, and any scraps of metal they could find. Some individuals even lived in water mains. Most of these unemployed residents of the Hoovervilles begged for food from those who had housing during this era. States

7 Hooverville in Seattle Original caption: 7/16/1934-Hooverville, a section of Seattle. Image: © Bettmann/COR BIS Date Photographed : July 16, 1934 Location Information: Seattle, Washington, USA

8 Depression Homeless Stand in Line The homeless and unemployed of the Great Depression wait in line seeking shelter in New York. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: 1930 Location Information: New York, New York, USA

9 Sharecropper's Wife and Family Wife and children of a sharecropper. Boone County, Arkansas, Image: © CORBIS Photographer: Ben Shahn Date Photographed: 1935 Location Information: Boone County, Arkansas, USA

10 Family of Coal Miner Family of an unemployed coal miner. Pursglove, on Scott's Run, West Virginia, September Image: © CORBIS Photographer: Marion Post Wolcott Date Photographed: September 1938 Location Information: Pursglove, on Scott's run, West Virginia, USA

11 Man in Chicago Shantytown A man reads a newspaper in front of his shack at Chicago shantytown during the Great Depression. The shantytown's site became the grounds for the 1933 World's Fair. Illinois, USA. Image: © CORBIS Date Photographed: May 1, 1930 Location Information: Chicago, Illinois, USA

12 Dust Storm A farm about to be enveloped by a dust storm during the great Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Image: © CORBIS Date Photograph ed: ca. 1930s

13 Family Packed In Car, On Way To The West Original caption: The automobile was often the only hope for the future to many families fleeing from the Dust Bowl in the Southwest during the depression years of the 1930's. Many of these families left their homes in Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, etc., for a better life in California. Here migrant cotton field worker and family on the way to the West (OK, AZ, and CA were often their itinerary). Photograph, early 1930's. Image: © Bettma nn/CO RBIS

14 Image: © Bettmann/CORBI S Date Photographed: ca Location Information: Da lhart, Texas, USA Dust Bowl Farm in Texas Original caption: Dalhart, TX- Picture shows the dust bowl; an abandoned farm house in Texas.

15 Boy in Dust Bowl A young boy covers his nose and mouth against brown sand in the Dust Bowl. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: ca. 1930s Location Information: USA

16 Migrant Mother by Dorothea Lange A poverty-stricken migrant mother with three young children gazes off into the distance. This photograph, commissioned by the FSA, came to symbolize the Great Depression for many Americans. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Photographer: Dorothea Lange Date Photographed: 1936 Location Information: Nipomo, California, USA

17 Protesters Carrying American Flags Original caption: Columbus, Ohio: Carrying American flags, several hundreds of persons on relief were pictured on the outskirts of Columbus prior to their march on the state capitol. The hunger marchers claim that they have no money or food and that such conditions have prevailed for over a week. They blamed politics for their plight and they demanded an audience with C.C. Stillman, Ohio Federal Relief Director who was recently appointed by the Federal Relief Administrator Harry Hopkins. Image: © Bettmann/C ORBIS Date Photograp hed: May 15, 1935 Location Informatio n: Columb us, Ohio, USA

18 Dust Storm in Texas Panhandle Image: © CORBIS Date Photographed: 1935 Location Information: Texas, USA

19 Farmer in the Dust Bowl A farmer in Kansas during the Great Dust Bowl of the 1930s attempts to work formerly fertile land buried in dust. Image: © CORBIS Date Photographed: September 1939 Location Information: Kansas, USA

20 Created by Chadrenne Blouin Jim Crow

21 Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Origin of Jim crow

22 Minstrel Shows … in the US they began in the 1830s, with working class white men dressing up as plantation slaves. These men imitated black musical and dance forms, combining savage parody of black Americans with genuine fondness for African American cultural forms. White performers would blacken their faces with burnt cork or greasepaint, dress in outlandish costumes, and then perform songs and skits that mocked African Americans. Before the Civil War, black men could not appear in minstrel shows--custom prohibited it. But there are several instances of black men putting on minstrel makeup and appearing as white men imitating black men. Later, in the twentieth century, several of the most famous minstrels were actually black men who wore makeup--the most famous being Bert Williams, who performed in blackface into the 1920s. rel/minstrel.html

23 These three stock characters were among several that reappeared in minstrel shows throughout the nineteenth century. "Jim Crow" was the stereotypical carefree slave, "Mr. Tambo" a joyous musician, and "Zip Coon" a free black attempting to "put on airs" or rise above his station. The parody in minstrel shows was often savage. el/minstrel.html

24 Created by Chadrenne Blouin Before The Jim crow laws

25 Before the Jim Crow Laws …by 1900, the term was generally identified with those racist laws and actions that deprived African Americans of their civil rights by defining blacks as inferior to whites, as members of a caste of subordinate people. The emergence of segregation in the South actually began immediately after the Civil War when the formerly enslaved people acted quickly to establish their own churches and schools separate from whites. At the same time, most southern states tried to limit the economic and physical freedom of the formerly enslaved by adopting laws known as Black Codes.

26 Before the Jim Crow Laws These early legal attempts at white-imposed segregation and discrimination were short-lived. During the period of Congressional Reconstruction, which lasted from 1866 to 1876, the federal government declared illegal all such acts of legal discrimination against African Americans. …the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, along with the two Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the various Enforcement Acts of the early 1870s, curtailed the ability of southern whites to formally deprive blacks of their civil rights.

27 before the Jim Crow Laws … African Americans were able to make great progress in building their own institutions, passing civil rights laws, and electing officials to public office. In response to these achievements, southern whites launched a vicious, illegal war against southern blacks and their white Republican allies.

28 before the Jim Crow Laws In most places, whites carried out this war in the late 1860s and early 1870s under the cover of secret organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. Thousands of African Americans were killed, brutalized, and terrorized in these bloody years. The federal government attempted to stop the bloodshed by sending in troops and holding investigations, but its efforts were far too limited.

29 Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Beginning of the Jim Crow Laws

30 Beginning of the Jim Crow Laws In 1877 …the federal government essentially abandoned all efforts at protecting the civil rights of southern blacks. It was not long before a stepped-up reign of white terror erupted in the South. The decade of the 1880s was characterized by mob lynchings, a vicious system of convict prison farms and chain gangs, the horribly debilitating debt peonage of sharecropping, the imposition of a legal color line in race relations, and a variety of laws that blatantly discriminated against blacks.

31 Beginning of the Jim Crow Laws Some southern states…moved to legally impose segregation on public transportation…Blacks were required to sit in a special car reserved for blacks known as "The Jim Crow Car," even if they had bought first-class tickets.

32 Created by Chadrenne Blouin The Jim Crow Laws & Segregation

33 the Jim Crow Laws Some states also passed so-called miscegenation laws banning interracial marriages. These bans were, in the opinion of some historians, the ultimate segregation laws. –They clearly announced that blacks were so inferior to whites that any mixing of the two threatened the very survival of the superior white race. Almost all southern states passed statutes restricting suffrage in the years from 1871 to 1889, including poll taxes in some cases. And the effects were devastating: over half the blacks voting in Georgia and South Carolina in 1880, for example, had vanished from the polls in Of those who did vote, many of their ballots were stolen, misdirected to opposing candidates, or simply not counted.

34 the Jim Crow Laws In the 1890s, starting with Mississippi, most southern states began more systematically to disfranchise black males by imposing voter registration restrictions, such as literacy tests, poll taxes, and the white primary. These new rules of the political game were used by white registrars to deny voting privileges to blacks at the registration place rather than at the ballot box, which had previously been done by means of fraud and force. By 1910, every state of the former Confederacy had adopted laws that segregated all aspects of life (especially schools and public places) wherein blacks and whites might socially mingle or come into contact.

35 Reasons for Segregation Many lower-class whites, for example, hoped to wrest political power from merchants and large landowners who controlled the vote of their indebted black tenants by taking away black suffrage. Some whites also feared a new generation of so- called "uppity" blacks, men and women born after slavery who wanted their full rights as American citizens.

36 Reasons for Segregation At the same time there appeared throughout America the new pseudo-science of eugenics that reinforced the racist views of black inferiority. Finally, many southern whites feared that the federal government might intervene in southern politics if the violence and fraud continued. They believed that by legally ending suffrage for blacks, the violence would also end. Even some blacks supported this idea and were willing to sacrifice their right to vote in return for an end to the terror.

37 Why Resistance to Segregation was difficult …the system of land tenancy, known as sharecropping, left most blacks economically dependent upon planter-landlords and merchant suppliers. …the white terror at the hands of lynch mobs threatened all members of the black family--adults and children alike. –This reality made it nearly impossible for blacks to stand up to Jim Crow because such actions might bring down the wrath of the white mob on one's parents, brothers, spouse, and children. Few black families, moreover, were economically well off enough to buck the local white power structure of banks, merchants, and landlords.

38 After Disenfranchisement White terror did not end--as some blacks had hoped--with the disfranchisement of southern black men. To enforce the new legal order of segregation, southern whites often resorted to even more brutalizing acts of mob terror, including race riots and ritualized lynching, than had been practiced even by the old Klan of the 1870s. … the 1890s ushered in a more formally racist South--one in which white supremacists used law and mob terror to deprive blacks of the vote and to define them in life and popular culture as an inferior people.

39 Court Actions the US Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional it …also ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited state governments from discriminating against people because of race but did not restrict private organizations or individuals from doing so. This meant that places like railroads, theaters, hotels, restaurants, etc. could legally institute segregation.

40 Court Actions Plessy v. Ferguson –Separate but Equal –R–Ruled that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of equal rights if the accommodations were equal Cumming v. Board of Education –L–Laws establishing separate schools for whites were valid, even if they provided no comparable schools for blacks

41 Jim Crow Laws By 1914 every Southern state had passed laws that created two separate societies; one black, the other white. Blacks and whites could not: –Ride together in the same railroad cars –Sit in the same waiting rooms –Use the same bathrooms –Eat in the same restaurants –Sit in the same theaters Blacks were denied access to: –Parks –Beaches –Picnic areas –Many hospitals

42 Examples of Jim Crow Laws Alabama: –Health Care- no person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed –Transportation- All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate tickets windows for the white and colored races –Public Facilities- It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards.

43 Examples of Jim Crow Laws Maryland –Marriage- all marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between a negro and a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. –Transportation- All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers.

44 End of Jim Crow Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas –Declared segregation of public schools unconstitutional The beginning of the Civil Rights Movement The beginning of the end of the Jim Crow laws

45 Created by Chadrenne Blouin Segregation & the fight for civil rights "We are confronted primarily with a moral issue… whether all Americans are to be afforded equal rights and equal opportunities, whether we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated." --John Fitzgerald Kennedy-- Referring to race riots in Alabama in a radio broadcast 11th June 1963.

46 Crowded Segregated Classroom Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: ca. 1940s

47 Segregationists Protesting in Montgomery Teenagers wave signs and confederate flags from their car during the fight over desegregating Montgomery's public schools. Image: © Flip Schulke/CORBIS Photographer: Flip Schulke Date Photographed: September 1963 Location Information: Montgomery, Alabama, USA

48 Blacks Registering to Vote in Alabama Long lines of African Americans wait to register to vote in a makeshift office in Alabama after passage of the Voting Rights Act. Image: © Flip Schulke/CORBIS Photographer: Flip Schulke Date Photographed: 1966 Location Information: Alabama, USA

49 James A. Peck Being Beaten by White Mob Original caption: James A. Peck, of New York, is mobbed at the Birmingham Bus station, May 14th, by whites opposing integration on the buses. This was one of two incidents of racial violence in the South. The other occurred at Anniston, Alabama, when a group of whites slashed the tires of a Greyhound bus, then followed it out of town and stoned the vehicle, tossing tear gas bombs and flares into the disabled bus. The 22 passengers, including nine members of the congress of racial equality, were rushed to a nearby hospital for treatment. None was believed seriously injured. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 14, 1961 Location Information: Birmingham, Alabama, USA

50 Man Drinking at Segregated Drinking Fountain Original caption: Jim Crowism: Drinking fountain for colored men in a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. Photograph, Original Caption Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: 1939 Location Information: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA

51 Demonstrators Facing Fire Hoses in Birmingham Three demonstrators join hands to build strength against the force of water sprayed by riot police in Birmingham, Alabama, during a protest of segregation practices. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 4, 1963 Location Information: Birmingham, Alabama, USA

52 1963: Medgar Evans Mississipi field secretary for the NAACP, is shot and killed in an ambush in front of his home, following a historic broadcast on the subject of civil rights by President John F. Kennedy nfo/id34.html

53 Segregation Original caption: Segregated drinking fountain in use in the American South. Undated photograph. BPA2# Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS This image is part of these set(s): Retrospective Top Bettmann Archive... Bettmann Archive Celebrating Black History Month

54 African American Student Sits Outside of Classroom George W. McLaurin, a 54 year old African American, sits in an anteroom, apart from the other students, as he attends class at the University of Oklahoma in The university insisted that segregation be maintained, but a Supreme Court ruling forced the institution to accept McLaurin as a student. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: October 16, 1948 Location Information: Norman, Oklahoma, USA

55 Sit-In Protesters Attacked at Lunch Counter Segregation protesters Professor John R. Salter, Joan Trunpauer, and Annie Moody remain at a sit-in at a lunch counter in Jackson, Mississippi even after Professor Salter was sprayed with condiments and beaten on the back and head by spectators in the crowd. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 28, 1963 Location Information: Jackson, Mississippi, USA

56 Freedom Rider Jim Zwerg in Hospital Twenty-one year old ministerial student and member of the Freedom Riders, Jim Zwerg, lies in a hospital bed after being beaten by pro- segregationists at a Montgomery, Alabama bus terminal. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 21, 1961 Location Information: Montgomery, Alabama, USA

57 Sit-In Demonstrators Dragged From Restaurant Mrs. Gloria Richardson, Chairman of the Cambridge Non-Violent Action Committee (far right) watches as sit-in demonstrators Johnny Weeks, 22 (far left), James Lewis, 28 (front center), and Dwight Campbell (back center) are arrested after refusing to leave the Dizzyland Restaurant. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: July 10, 1963 Location Information: Cambridge, Maryland, USA

58 Demonstrators Protesting Jailing of 13 Edward Haan of Chicago and Nashville, TN, bearing "No Color Line in Heaven" sign joined 100 Negroes in anti- segregation demonstration. Demonstrators protested jailing of 13 Negro sit-in demonstrators on trespass charges. Image: © Bettmann/Corbis Date Photographed: February 8, 1961 Location Information: Rock Hill, South Carolina, USA

59 Children Arrested After Civil Rights Demonstration African American children participating in a Civil Rights protests wait for a police van to take them to jail in Birmingham, Alabama. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 6, 1963 Location Information: Birmingham, Alabama, USA

60 Victims of Lynch Mob Hanging from Tree The bodies of Dooley Morton (L) and Bert Moore, of Lowndes County, are shown hanging from a tree after the two were lynched by an angry mob of white citizens on July 15th. They were torn away from police officials, who arrested the men when a white woman identified the pair as the ones who had made the attempt to criminally attack her. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: July 17, 1935 Location Information: Columbus, Mississippi, USA

61 KKK Members and Civil Rights Protesters in Atlanta A police officer stands guard as Ku Klux Klansmen protesting a desegregated hotel pass a group of African Americans protesting a segregated restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: January 25, 1964 Location Information: Atlanta, Georgia, USA

62 Poster Of Missing Civil Rights Workers A missing persons poster displays the photographs of civil rights workers Andrew Goodman, James Earl Chaney, and Michael Henry Schwerner after they disappeared in Mississippi. It was later discovered that they were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: June 29, 1964 Location Information: Washington, DC, USA

63 Demonstrators Demanding Civil Rights Original caption: Freedom Group Hangs Signs on Bus. New York: Members of a group called "The Washington Freedom Riders Committee" hang signs on the side of bus parked near the crossroads cafe at Times Square here May 30th, before leaving for Washington, D.C. The group plan to picket the white House in Washington. A spokesman for the group said it is demanding resolute federal action to protect the lives and civil rights of the Negroes in the south. The unidentified spokesman said they would request to see a representative of President Kennedy to present its demands. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 30, 1961 Location Information: Times Square, Manhattan, New York, New York, USA

64 Police Dragging African-American Man An African-American student, Willie Lawrence McRae, a member of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee of Atlanta, Georgia, is dragged by two Selma, Alabama police officers after they arrested him for "blocking the sidewalk" and "failure to obey an officer. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: January 25, 1965 Location Information: Selma, Alabama, USA

65 The March on Washington at the Lincoln Memorial Original caption: This photo, made from the top of the Lincoln Memorial, shows how the March on Washington participants jammed the area in front of the Memorial and on either side of the Reflecting Pool. Demonstrators are massed at the pool all the way back to the Washington Monument. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: August 28, 1963 Location Information: Washington, DC, USA

66 Civil Rights Marchers on Bridge State troopers watch as marchers cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge over the Alabama River in Selma, Alabama as part of a civil rights march on March 9. Two days before troopers used excessive force driving marchers back across the bridge, killing one protester. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: March 9, 1965 Location Information: Selma, Alabama, USA

67 A Woman And A Child Marching Original caption: 8/12/59- Little Rock, Arkansas: A woman and a child, both of whom refused to identify themselves, March in front of the Arkansas Capitol here, August 12th, protesting the scheduled integration of this city's high schools, one Negro student was scheduled to enter Central High and three Negroes are to attend Hall High School when the schools open, August 12th. Governor Orval Faubus said that he had rumors to the effect that violence was planned, and implored segregationists not to attack police charged with keeping the peace at the schools. Although he asked for restraint from violence, Faubus attacked those responsible for the integration. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Location Information: Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

68 Injured Freedom Rider James Zwerg Freedom Rider James Zwerg, stands bleeding, after an attack by white pro- segregationists at the Greyhound Bus Terminal in Montgomery, Alabama. Zwerg remained in the street for over an hour after the beating, since 'white ambulances' refused to treat him. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 20, 1961 Location Information: Montgomery, Alabama, USA

69 Restaurant Owner Smashes Egg In Protester's Face Robert Fehsenfeldt, owner of the Dizzyland Restaurant, smashes an egg in a white demonstrator's face here July 8 during an eleven person, fifteen minute "sit in" in front of the restaurant shortly after Maryland National Guardsmen left the town. Fehsenfeldt also kicked several demonstrators and threw a glass of water in one's face. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: July 8, 1963 Location Information: Cambridge, Maryland, USA

70 Protesters Being Hosed by Fireman Original caption: Firemen bear in on a group of African Americans who sought shelter in a doorway as hoses and dogs were used in routing anti-segregation demonstrators. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 3, 1963 Location Information: Birmingham, Alabama, USA

71 Federal Trooper on Washington, DC Street During Riots Original caption: 4/5/1968-Washington, D.C.: President Johnson called Federal troops into the nation's capital April 5 to restore peace to this frightened city after a day of arson, looting and violence. Here, a trooper stands guard in the street as another (l) patrols a completely demolished building. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: April 5, 1968 Location Information: Washington, DC, USA

72 Civil Rights Leader John Lewis Attacked by Police Original caption: Selma, Alabama: End Of The March. SNCC leader John Lewis (light coat, center), attempts to ward off the blow as a burly state trooper swings his club at Lewis' head during the attempted march from Selma to Montgomery March 7th. Lewis was later admitted to a local hospital with a possible skull fracture. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: March 7, 1965 Location Information: Selma, Alabama, USA

73 Sit-In Protester Arrested by Police Officers Police officers arrest Morgan State College student Ken Brown during a sit-in at an Annapolis restaurant. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: March 3, 1964 Location Information: Annapolis, Maryland, USA

74 Civil Rights Protest at Capitol Building in Annapolis Protesters at a demonstration sponsored by the Baltimore Federation of Civil Rights Organizations protest the use of police dogs at racial demonstrations and the lack of a statewide Public Accommodations Law in front of the capitol building in Annapolis, Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: March 4, 1964 Location Information: Annapolis, Maryland, USA

75 Civil Rights Picketers Singing on Sidewalk Original caption: These pickets kneel on pavement and sing songs as they await police buses after their arrest on trespassing charges during segregation demonstration at Gwynn Oak amusement park. Over 100 demonstrators were arrested in first hour of demonstration. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: July 7, 1963 Location Information: Baltimore, Maryland, USA

76 Integrated Class Room The first integrated class at School 99 in Baltimore. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: September 8, 1954 Location Information: Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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