College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education The Information Operations Environment IW-200
Information Operations l Why are we talking about IO and IW? l What is it? What are its elements? (Is it all about computers?) l What is the AF doing about it?
Info Space Air Air, Space and Info Ops Are Inherently Intertwined IO is an integral part of all successful aerospace functions The Aerospace Domain
Overview l The world we live in – The Information Age – Changes – Technology Driven l Changing Nature of Warfare – Impact of Technology – Paradigms – IO Doctrine - Definitions and differences l I-Bomb Video
Information Age Changes l Production: – Land – Labor l Capital: – Tangible Assets l Money: – Gold, minerals – Paper l Production: – Knowledge – Service Oriented l Capital: – Intangibles l Money: – Electronic / digital Industrial Age Information Age
Information Age Changes l Work: – Physical – Repetitive, interchangeable l Scale: – Big plant operations – Mass produced l Organization: – Bureaucratic – Vertical l Work: – Service oriented – Creative l Scale: – Small, dispersed – Individualized l Organization: – Virtual, networked – Telecommute Industrial Age Information Age
Information Age Changes l Individual: – Not unique, homogeneous society – Marxism, etc. l Family: – Stripped of functions like education, health l Population: – Urbanized l Individual: – Unique, heterogeneous society – Individualism l Family: – Reassuming roles – Home-schooling, etc l Population: – Sub-urbanizing – Dispersed Industrial Age Information Age
Information Age Changes l Political: – Nationalism – Majority-minority conflicts – Big government actions – Strong political parties l Political: – Localism, transnationalism – Minority-minority conflicts – Smaller government – Political parties weaker Industrial Age Information Age
Living in a Revolution an age that is driven by information. these are the technological breakthroughs that are changing war and how we prepare for war.” “We live in an age that is driven by information. It’s an age which Alvin Toffler has called the Third Wave. The ability to acquire and communicate huge volumes of information in real time, computing power to analyze this information quickly, and the control systems to pass this analysis to multiple users simultaneously -- these are the technological breakthroughs that are changing war and how we prepare for war.” SECEDEF William Perry, 5 May 1994
1999 180 Million Computers 14 Million FAX Machines 40 Million Cellular Phones E-mail Exceeds Postal Service 1959 5,000 Stand-alone Computers No FAX Machines No Cellular Phones No E-mail Technology Explosion
The Technology Behind The Change l Computing technology and the Chip l Only Ten years ago, 1990 – MORE People in AF than Computers – Just beginning to Network Stand Alone Functions Sneaker Net – Primitive by today’s standards Z Series PCs: Z-100, Z-150, Z-200, etc.
l Today… – #PCs > #AF users – Chip speeds > gigahertz – Interconnected, WWW – AF Networks handle billions of electronic events annually – Terminology Systems Administrators Knowledge managers Chief Information Officers The Technology Behind The Change
Processor power doubles every 24 months Memory size triples every 18 months Cost halved every 18 months Microchip is the Driver Communications bandwidth continues to increase Density doubles every 24 months 6 months 12 months 6 months
Interconnected World GCCS DMS TBMCS TPFDD GCSS GTN DSN
Civil War: Telegraph WWI: Telephone 1400150016001700180019002000 Lanterns Signal Towers Napoleonic Wars: Signal Mirrors Printed Documents Radios, Radars, Enigma, Ultra WWII, Korea: Vietnam: SATCOM, Mainframe Computers Persian Gulf War: PCs, SATCOM, Automated Switching, PGMs, Automated Navigation GII NII DII Use breeds dependence... dependence creates VULNERABILITY Demand for Information 1300
What is Information? Collect It Transmit It Transform It = Data + Instructions Store It Destroy Corrupt Deny Exploit
Every military capability depends on computers and networks in one way or another!! The Real Impact of the Technology
Military / Technology Technological Revolution Computer processing power Storage device density Reduce size, weight, power Display resolution Sensors Bandwidth Software Capability Impact on Warfighting Precision Lethality Speed & maneuver Stealth Awareness Reliability Improved logistics
Security Paradigms l Known adversaries, understood threat l Long warning times l Leading edge technology confined to major powers l Force-on-force, land- centric battle l Serial attack, target-by- target l Information an adjunct to weapons l l Unpredictable opponents/challenges l l Short warning times l l Leading edge technology proliferates l l Selective force for effect l l Asymmetrically applied air and space power l l Simultaneous, parallel strike l l Information a weapon / target OldNow
The means by which enlightened rulers and sagacious generals moved and conquered others…was advance knowledge. Advance knowledge cannot be gained from ghosts and spirits, inferred from phenomena, or projected from the measures of Heaven, but must be gained from men, for it is the knowledge of the enemy’s true situation. Sun Tzu Why is IO Important?
Joint Vision 2020 l All Bounded & Enabled by Information Superiority l l The Goal: Full Spectrum Dominance – – Dominant Maneuver – – Precision Engagement – – Focused Logistics – – Full-Dimensional Protection
AF Core Competencies l Global Attack l Precision Engagement l Rapid Global Mobility l Air And Space Superiority l Agile Combat Support l Information Superiority Land Space Sea Air The other realm Information
AFDD 2-5.1 EW AFDD 2-5.2 ISR AFDD 2-5.3 PSYOP AFDD 2-5.4 PAO Information Operations l l AFDD 2-5, Aug 1998 l l AF CONOPS, Dec 1999 l l AF Organizations are restructuring or being created to perform IO/IW
IO Definition Information Operations comprise those actions taken to gain, exploit, defend, or attack information and information systems and include both information-in-warfare and information warfare and are conducted through-out all phases of an operation and across the range of military operations.
AFDD 2-5 Information Operations CNA Military Deception EW PSYOP Physical attack PAO OCI ISR Precision Nav & Positioning Weather Other Info Collection/ Dissemination Activities PAO Counterinformation OPSEC, CND, PAO Counterdeception Counterpropaganda Electronic Protection Counterintelligence Information Assurance DCI DefendAttack GainExploit
INFORMATION SUPERIORITY INFORMATION OPERATIONS AFDD 2-5 Successfully executed Information Operations achieve information superiority ISR Precision Nav & Position Other Info Collection/ Dissemination Activities PAO Weather INFORMATION-in-WARFARE exploitgain INFORMATION WARFARE DEFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION OFFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION Counter- Intelligence Information Assurance OPSEC Counter- Propaganda Counter- Deception Electronic Protect CNDPAO PSYOP Physical Attack Military Deception Electronic Warfare PAO CNA defend attack
Joint Doctrine l l JP 3-13 IO l l JP 3-13.1 C2W l l JP 3-51 EW l l JP 3-53 PSYOP l l JP 3-54 OPSEC l l JP 3-58 Deception l l JP 3-61 PA
Joint Doctrine l l Joint Pub 3-13: – – IO comprise those actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one’s own information and information systems l l AFDD 2-5: – – IO comprise those actions taken to gain, exploit, defend, or attack information and information systems and include both information-in-warfare and information warfare
OFFENSIVE Deception EW (EA) Physical Attack PSYOP CNA (Info Attack) PA OPSEC SIO DEFENSIVE Counter Deception EW (EP) Counter Propaganda (C-PSYOP) Info Assurance OPSEC Counter Intelligence PA Physical Security SIO CND Gain / Exploit ISR PNP WX PA IIW Counter Information Information Warfare Information Operations Information Superiority JP 3-13 AFDD 2-5 AFDD 2-5 Draft Joint Doctrine vs new AF Doctrine
When do we do IO? PEACE CRISIS WAR RESTORAL Even when the US is at peace, the AF is fully engaged, on a daily basis, in conducting some IO functions.
Destruction PSYOP OPSEC Deception EW CNA IO: A Warrior’s Perspective IO can support, and can be supported by, all other aspects of aerospace power.
Replace Information Source with Deception or PSYOP Shape the Enemy’s Allocation of Resources Data is interrupted either by jamming or manipulation Decision Maker Influencing Enemy’s Objectives Attack - Insert False Data
GAININFORMATIONEXPLOITINFORMATIONDEFENDINFORMATIONATTACKINFORMATION The Aerospace Domain IO is an integral part of all successful aerospace functions Info Space Air