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Standards for Connection of Electric Vehicles David DOSSETT, CENELEC President BEAMA Low Carbon Living Conference 15 March 2011
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSET Electric Vehicles What Are Standards? Who Are The Standardisers?
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles European Standards Organisations CEN = European Committee for Standardization CENELEC = European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization ETSI = European Telecommunication Standards Institute CEN and CENELEC now have 31 national members (EU, EFTA, Croatia)
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles What Is A Standard? It is a document voluntary in application established by all interested parties reflects consensus approved by a recognized body for common and repeated use National, International, European Standards
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles European Standardization Model ESOs recognised under Directive 98/34/EC CEN, CENELEC and ETSI are officially recognized by EU legislation to draw up standards under New Approach directives All CEN, CENELEC and ETSI NSBs are committed to: implement a European standard (EN) once ratified, identically as national standard withdraw any conflicting national standard Voluntary standards are key for the European Single Market
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Why European Standards? Single European Market Innovation from European research results Competitiveness in a global economy Easier access for new Members to the EU Alternative for better regulation Standards for the market and by the market Co-regulation in Europe since 1985 BUT, especially... 1 EN = 31 national standards in Europe = access to 490 million customers.
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSET Electric Vehicles Standards For Electric Vehicles
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Why Standards For Electric Vehicles? Promote the development of the internal market for EVs Increase client acceptance Optimize energy use Discourage imposition of market barriers Make equipment Interoperable Interchangeable across frontiers Allow for optimum use of infrastructure Allow for power generation
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSET Electric Vehicles European Interests And International Standardization
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles The Landscape Internationally, ISO standardizes vehicles; IEC their electrical aspects Type-approval etc is regulated Our standards work in Europe has been limited: Vehicle pollution requirements in support of EU Regulations Intelligent Transport standards – electronic road tolling, driver information etc Now, e-Mobility has come to the fore
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSET Electric Vehicles Standards And Regulation
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles The European Mandate Mandate = Commission/EFTA request to the European Standards Organizations (ESOs), endorsed by Member States A mandate on electric vehicle standards issues has been given to the standards bodies Request to produce a “standards work programme” by spring 2011, and the necessary standards within 18 months This is fast – but many of the necessary standards are under way internationally…
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles What Are We Asked To Do? The ESOs are asked to develop European standards or to review existing standards in order to: Ensure interoperability and connectivity between the electricity supply and on-board chargers of electric vehicles, so that they can be connected and be interoperable in all EU States Ensure interoperability and connectivity between “off-board” chargers and the electric vehicle and removable batteries Consider any smart-charging issue with respect to the charging of electric vehicles Consider safety risks and electromagnetic compatibility of the charger of electric vehicles in the field of relevant Directives
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles How Are We Doing It? We have created a Joint Working Group (“Focus Group”) CEN- CENELEC, with participation of ISO, IEC, ETSI Representatives of technical activities, interested associations, CEN-CENELEC national members, Commission etc Note the Focus Group is not preparing standards as such! Focus Group Tasks: Prepare an overview of European requirements for electric vehicle standards Match these against existing international standards and all relevant work in progress in standards bodies Recommend how missing issues should be covered by standardization, by whom and on what timescale Propose how ESOs respond to European Commission mandate
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSET Electric Vehicles European Work
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Organization/Timescale Focus Group has set up working groups (“Project Teams”) to prepare a response on the different issues: Connectors Charging Communications Batteries Terminology Regulations and standards Electro-magnetic compatibility First overview report/roadmap agreed Final report and recommendations March 2011
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Connector Issues Connectors on the wall: Domestic circuits AC – most routine charging will be at home Heavier charging at 3-Phase AC: draft IEC Part 2 has several options, but we need one for Europe Differences in national wiring rules in Europe > interoperability issues Connectors on the vehicle: AC connectors – different options again in IEC DC connectors – choice of two but with different characteristics
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Charger Issues Recommendations concerning interoperable charging systems using the four charging modes authorised by IEC Preferential configurations depending on charging mode and supply categories (AC, DC, Mixed?) to ensure interoperability of charging infrastructures Restrictions and conditions of use applicable to the vehicle and harness when connected to existing domestic socket outlets (mode 1 and 2)
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Other Issues Communication issues – next overheads Battery issues: interoperability: dimensional standards of battery and modules for EVs, interface systems, electric cycle batteries, safety, supply chain, battery switching stations Regulatory/EMC/Terminology (separate PTs) Basically: our priorities are the pan-European connectors and chargers, ie so interoperable infrastructure can be created DC charging is longer-term smart charging is longer-term the grid effects will therefore be longer-term – but we must work on them
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Vehicle To Grid Issues These are less mature Low-level communication: low-level communication for AC and DC charge control and safety functions is defined in the IEC series controls for AC charging in part 1 (voted September 2010) controls for DC charging in part 24 (work just starting) Higher-level communication: Work in joint ISO/IEC WG defining power-line communication between vehicle and charging device, defining message content signals for load control for the optimization of the grid and electricity usage, and mobility services (link to the grid issues) use of existing data channels that will also be used on in thermal vehicles (ITS, 3G, WiFi) Final choice of physical layer between vehicle and charging post may have a major influence on choices made for smart grid (and the “smart home”)
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles What Will We End Up With (1)? March 2011, a set of proposals for (at least) which connector/charger standards are needed at European level for: charging from the AC mains with standard voltages available in Europe charging of the vehicle battery from an external DC battery charger charging of small electric vehicles such as scooters and bicycles Information on EMC and electrical safety aspects of these NO proposals for European Standards work unless specifically justified
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles What Will We End Up With (2)? Information on smart-charging, communication and battery standards issues: Maybe less immediately important for interoperability Not even all within the mandate But still there are standards aspects on these Contribution to the longer-term view from our smart grid JWG A set of recommendations either as to which IEC standards to adopt as European ones, or for selection of options in them for Europe Possibly also recommendations to regulators – if national legal barriers exist in Europe
© CEN-CENELEC David DOSSETT Electric Vehicles Thank You! Standards will help electric vehicles achieve their potential
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