Presentation on theme: "Today’s lesson we will be looking at: Responses to aggression You will be able to: State two responses to aggression which involve the use of force."— Presentation transcript:
Today’s lesson we will be looking at: Responses to aggression You will be able to: State two responses to aggression which involve the use of force. State two responses which don’t involve the use of force. Explain what the United Nations Organisation is and identify what they do.
Countries who are victims of aggression have a number of options: They could try to negotiate a peaceful settlement in the dispute. They may return force with sufficient force to defend its territory. They may return force with greater force as part of a counter- attack against the aggressor. They could call the United Nations to intervene with peace- keeping forces and the threat of non-military sanctions such as trade sanctions against the aggressor.
The United Nations Set up in 1945 To promote international peace and security. Most but not all of the world’s countries are part of the UN There are 192 countries in the UN only a few which are not: Kosovo – independence from Serbia 2008-still not recognised as part of the UN. Vatican (Holy See)
The UN charter States that all countries should respect the fundamental human rights of all people and establish conditions under which justice and respect can be maintained. Tolerance should be practiced and people should be allowed to live in peace.
The UN charter also states that the international community should to whatever is necessary to maintain international peace and to protect future generations from war.
Legitimate authority Many argue that if a war is necessary then the UN is the only legitimate authority to declare war. Article 2.4 of the UN states that member nations are required to ‘refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force.’
UN structure: There are various bodies within the UN which have the task of trying to achieve the aim of making the world a more peaceful place. The International Court of Justice – tries to establish and enforce international laws and broker peaceful settlements to disputes which might lead to war.
Are they successful? Although some states have ignored ruling from the ICJ, it has successfully laid down principles which have allowed numerous disputes to be settled peacefully. The UN have helped end wars by helping establish cease-fires and arrange peace treaties.
WMD’s The UN have also tried to broker agreements for conventions to control and reduce the use of weapons of mass destruction – one success being in 1967 there was an international agreement to ban development of WMD in space.
Peacekeeping forces The Un have multi-national peacekeeping forces which sends flashpoints to protect civilians and to try and prevent war. Peacekeeping forces are soldiers provided by the UN’s various member states.
Peacekeeping soldiers Soldiers wear blue berets or helmets – UN colour Use minimal force to prevent fighting and protect civilians. Orders to shoot are normally only given when soldiers have to defend themselves. Sometimes they are unarmed and act as observers who report on any breach of peace deals.
Geneva Convention. The UN established the Geneva convention to help victims of war. The convention states that civilians must be treated humanely and that pow must not be tortured. It also bans hostage-taking and discrimination on the grounds or race, religion, nationality or politics