Presentation on theme: "B RIDGING THE S OCIAL J USTICE / E NVIRONMENTAL J USTICE D IVIDE : R ESOURCES FOR T EACHERS OF L ITERATURE, W RITING, E THNIC & W OMEN S S TUDIES Metropolitan."— Presentation transcript:
B RIDGING THE S OCIAL J USTICE / E NVIRONMENTAL J USTICE D IVIDE : R ESOURCES FOR T EACHERS OF L ITERATURE, W RITING, E THNIC & W OMEN S S TUDIES Metropolitan State University Center for Teaching & Learning Fall Faculty Conference – Sept. 13, 2008 Learning to be Green Dr. Greta Gaard, Community Faculty in Womens Studies
S TARTING Q UESTIONS What are some social justice issues addressed in your courses? What can be done about these issues? What have you/your students done? What environmental issues are (or could be) addressed in your courses? What can be done about these issues? What have you/your students done?
D RAWING THE N EXUS : ETHICAL CONTENTS AND CONTEXTS Hunger Food costs, quality War, migrations, struggle over resources Police brutality Prison reform Terrorism and national security Immigration Marriage rights & benefits Housing Health Care Women, children, and welfare Industrial animal agriculture Biotechnology, agro- chemicals Global warming Water quality Healthy forests Species loss Waste sites Desertification Energy production Vivisection Asbestos, lead paints, heavy metals Social Justice Environmental
T WO I NTERSECTIONAL A NALYSES Ecofeminism – starting with the insight that the oppression of women and of nature are interdependent…an analysis that has tended to foreground gender and nature Environmental Justice – began by politicizing the co-occurrence of toxic waste & communities of color…an analysis that has tended to foreground race, then class, and defined environment as the places where we live, work, and play
E COFEMINIST M OVEMENT C HRONOLOGY 1980 & 1981 – Womens Pentagon Actions 1981 – First West Coast Ecofeminist Conference 1982 – Feminists for Animal Rights founded 1983 – Reclaim the Earth: Women Speak Out for Life on Earth (Caldecott & Leland, eds., England) 1986 – WomanEarth Feminist Peace Institute founded by Starhawk & Ynestra King 1987 – USC Ecofeminist Conference (papers published as Reweaving the World, ed. Diamond & Orenstein, in 1990) 1991 – Womens Environment and Development Organization founded by Bella Abzug & Mim Kelber 1991 – Ecofeminist Visions Emerging (EVE) forms in NYC with Cathleen & Colleen McGuire
E CO F EMINISM : NOTICING DOMINATION BASED ON DIFFERENCE Sexism: male over female Racism: white over black Classism: wealthy over working class Heterosexism: heterosexuals over GLBTQ Ageism: adult youth over children & elders Ableism: temporarily abled over differently abled Speciesism: human over other animal species Anthropocentrism: culture over nature
E COFEMINISTS ON CULTURE / NATURE W HATEVER IS DEFINED AS NATURE -> SUBORDINATED / RESOURCE FOR CULTURE Wealthy urban centers commanding water, energy (coal, nuclear, hydro), food resources – privileged consumption Struggling rural areas used as resources for urban centers Wild environments (forests, rivers, mountains) used as resources (lumber, hydro- power, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power) and as waste depositories Third-World countries used as resources for First-World countries Indigenous and rural people and their lands exploited as resources for Third-world elites and First-World consumers
E COFEMINIST C RITIQUE OF THE L OGIC OF DOMINATION -- REQUIRES / RELIES ON ALIENATION, HIERARCHY, DOMINATION PerspectiveValued SelfDevalued Other SpeciesismHuman animalsNonhuman animals SexismMenWomen RacismWhitesPeople of Color ClassismWealthy Working Class / Poor HeterosexismHeterosexualsGLBTQ AgeismAdult YouthYoung & elders AbleismTemporarily abledDifferently abled AnthropocentrismCultureNature Urban Rural CivilizedWild Feminism & Animal Rights*ReasonEmotion, empathy *Marjory Spiegel, The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery *Carol Adams, The Sexual Politics of Meat *Susan Griffin, Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her *Greta Gaard, Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature *Josephine Donovan & Carol Adams, The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics
E NVIRONMENTAL J USTICE : R ESPONDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM, DEFINED AS The deliberate targeting of communities of color for toxic waste disposal and the siting of polluting industries: Radioactive waste on Native lands Landfills and hazardous wastes in African American and Latino communities Banned pesticides exported to Third World Toxic labor conditions for farmworkers, maquila workers, sweatshop workers Economic extortion: want jobs/income?...
E NVIRONMENTAL R ACISM IN N ATIVE N ORTH A MERICA Over 700 Native nations on North America 317 reservations in the U.S. threatened by env. Hazards, toxic wastes, clearcuts Colonization & Env. Racism on Native lands Siting of toxic wastes (nuclear waste dumps) Power generation Hydro – James Bay I & II, Hydro-Quebec Nuclear power & nuclear waste Nevada Test Site & Western Shoshone Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant – NSP Yucca Mountain – nations dumpsite for nuclear waste Coal – Northern Cheyenne & AMAX Militarization – Hawaii
E VENTS LEADING TO T HE E NVIRONMENTAL J USTICE MOVEMENT 1982 – Warren County, NC predominantly black and poor residents oppose a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) disposal landfill in their community – Toxic Wastes and Race, a study commissioned by the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice Correlating waste facility sites and demographics, the study found race was the most powerful variable predicting location. Other variables were poverty, land values, and home ownership – First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit – 4 days in Washington D.C.
1991 F IRST N ATIONAL P EOPLE OF C OLOR E NVIRONMENTAL L EADERSHIP S UMMIT (2 ND SUMMIT IN 2002) Broadened the EJ movement beyond the anti-toxics focus to include Public health Worker safety Land use Transportation Housing Resource allocation Community empowerment Built a multi-racial grassroots movement around environmental & economic justice Created a 17-point Principles of Environmental Justice
T HE V ISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE Equal access to natural resources Universal human right to clean air and water, adequate health care, affordable shelter, safe workplaces Requires eliminating institutional racism and classism that results in locating toxic waste in poor & minority communities, unsafe workplaces (pesticides in the fields, chemicals and radiation in the factories), and womens disadvantaged position in the workforce (leading to reproductive hazards in the workplace) Requires restructuring of the entire social order
B RINGING THESE INTERSECTIONAL PERSPECTIVES TO THE DISCIPLINES English: Literature, Composition, Creative Writing, Rhetoric Ethnic Studies Womens Studies Course Content & Course Contexts Experiential learning Service learning Community education
R ESOURCES FOR L ITERATURE & W RITING Ecocriticism e/resources/ecocritical- library/ e/resources/ecocritical- library/ Ecocriticism Reader. Ed. Glotfelty & Fromm, Ecofeminist Literary Criticism. Ed. Gaard & Murphy, Ecocomposition Dobrin, S. & C. Weisser. Ecocomposition:Theoretical & Pedagogical Approaches (2001). Natural discourse: Toward Ecocomposition. (2002) Writing Environments (2005). Course Readers (next slide)
E COCOMPOSITION C OURSE R EADERS Chris Anderson & Lex Runciman, A Forest of Voices, 2 nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000) Lorraine Anderson, Scott Slovic, and John O'Grady, eds. Literature and the Environment (Longman, 1998) Terrell Dixon & Scott Slovic, eds., Being in the World: An Environmental Reader for Writers (Longman, 1992) Sid Dobrin, Saving Place: An Ecocomposition Reader (McGraw-Hill, 2004) Melissa Walker, Reading the Environment (W.W. Norton, 1994)
R ESOURCES FOR E NVIRONMENTAL R HETORIC Coppola, Nancy W., & Bill Karis, eds. Technical Communication, Deliberative Rhetoric, and Environmental Discourse: Connections and Directions. ATTW/Ablex, DeLuca, Kevin Michael. Image Politics: The New Rhetoric of Environmental Activism. Lawrence Erlbaum, Fill, Alwin, and Peter Mulhausler, eds. Ecolinguistics Reader: Language, Ecology, and Environment. Continuum, Herndl, Carl G. and Stuart C. Brown, eds. Green Culture: Environmental Rhetoric in Contemporary America. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996.) Killingsworth, M. Jimmie and Jacqueline S. Palmer. Ecospeak: Rhetoric and Environmental Politics in America. (Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1992.) Waddell, Craig, ed. Landmark Essays on Rhetoric and the Environment. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.).
R ESOURCES FOR E THNIC S TUDIES / E NVIRONMENTAL J USTICE Southwest Network for Economic and Env. Justice Center for HealthEnv. & Justice Southwest Organizing Project Indigenous Env. Network Environmental Justice Resource Clark Atlanta Univ. EJ Resources (MI) m/environmental_justic e.htm Natl Black EJ Network EJ & Climate Change
K EY T EXTS ON E NVIRONMENTAL J USTICE Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color (R.D. Bullard 1997) The Environmental Justice Reader: Politics, Poetics, Pedagogy ( Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, Rachel Stein, eds., 2002) New Perspectives on Environmental Justice: Gender, Sexuality, and Activism (Rachel Stein, ed., 2004) Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal of the Environmental Justice Movement (D.N. Pellow & R.J. Brulle, 2005) Mexican Americans & the Environment: Tierra y Vida (Devon Pena 2005) Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry (Hightower et al, 2006) Resisting Global Toxics: Transnational Movements for Environmental Justice (D.N. Pellow, 2008)
R ESOURCES FOR W OMEN S S TUDIES Eve Online: Womens Environment and Development Institute Introductory bibliography to Ecofeminism Activist-educative hub for ecofeminism Eastern Shore Sanctuary & Education Center Boston Ecofeminist Action Womens Voices for the Earth
G REEN E DUCATION R ESOURCES Second Nature: education for sustainability MN Next Step for Education c=16 c=16 Upper Midwest Association for Campus Sustainability
E COFEMINIST & EJ S ERVICE L EARNING (MN) Environmental Justice Associates of MN (site under construction) MN Center for Environmental Advocacy MN Environmental Partnership Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy Organic Consumers Association SEEK MN Home for Environmental Education Womens Environmental Institute Fresh Energy
W HY G REEN E DUCATION ? Theres an urgent need for ecological, economic, and social justice on all levels: Interspecies Ecological Social (inclusive of all human diversities) Economic International Whats the alternative? Ppt. available at