Common toad Toads have rough, warty skins and walk or “hop” rather than leap about Female Male Dark markings on or near gland, eardrum not visible Males: less robust and a shallower head but with chunky “Popeye” arms
Spawn Frogspawn is always found in clumps Toadspawn is deposited in long gelatinous strings wound around water plants. It is usually produced a little after frogspawn. It is harder to spot but may be revealed during netting
Frog and toad tadpoles On hatching, tadpoles of both species are very dark and look similar Frog tadpoles become mottled and look greyish or brown but toad tadpoles remain black
Tadpoles: behavioural differences Toad tadpoles often aggregate or shoal whereas frog tadpoles are secretive, hiding amongst plants or mud
Rare Species Natterjack: found in dunes and heathland, mostly south and northwest coasts Pool frog (native): reintroduced to a small area of East Anglia
Aliens: green or water frogs Most likely non-native species (pool, marsh & edible frogs) Most likely in South-east England Very variable in colour, bask and call from around ponds Obvious, paired vocal sacs either side of head
Other Aliens < 15 cm or more! Clawed frog American bullfrog
Photographs Photographs used in this presentation are by Chris Gleed-Owen, Fred Holmes, Phyl King, Hanna Powell and John Wilkinson Copyright of all photographs remains with the photographers and ARC These photographs should not be used for purposes other than NARRS training without the permission of the photographers.