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Advanced Research Methods for HCIT © 2012 Department of Computer Science Advanced Topics in HCIT Introduction to Universal Design Bláithín Gallagher PhD Marie Curie Research Fellow
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience.* Albert Einstein Everything should be made as simple as possible. But no simpler. *from On the Method of Theoretical Physics, p The Herbert Spencer Lecture, delivered at Oxford (10 June 1933)
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science What is Universal? Today, more than ever before, life must be characterized by a sense of Universal responsibility, not only nation to nation and human to human, but also human to other forms of life. Dalai Lama Universal:- Adjective:.Of or pertaining to the universe; extending to, including, or affecting, the whole number, quantity, or space; unlimited; general; all-reaching; all-pervading; as, universal ruin; universal good; universal benevolence or benefice. Adapted or adaptable to all or to various uses, shapes, sizes, etc. Noun: A person or thing having universal effect, currency, or application, in particular.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science What is Design? “Design is what links creativity and innovation. It shapes ideas to become practical and attractive propositions for users or customers. Design may be described as creativity deployed to a specific end.’Design is powerful and profoundly influences our daily lives and our sense of confidence, comfort, and control.” Sir George Cox Sir George Cox DESIGN:- Noun - A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is built or made. Verb - Decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), typically by making a detailed drawing of it.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Terminology Barrier-free design: concerned with Access focus on disability and accommodating people with disabilities in the environment. e,g. Removing architectural barriers Assistive technology: focus on compensating an individual function with a disability. Can range from eye glasses to a screen reader Universal design takes into account all potential users not just user with disabilities
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Definitions of Universal Design Universal Design is the design of products and environments to be usable by everyone, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized designRon MaceRon Mace Universal Design is a framework for the design of places, things, information, communication and policy to be usable by the widest range of people operating in the widest range of situations without special or separate design. Most simply, Universal Design is human- centered design of everything with everyone in mind. The Institute for Human Centered Design
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Definitions of Universal Design “Universal Design ("UD") increases usability, safety and health of environments, products and systems in response to the diversity of people and abilities. With attention focused on the changing demographics, differences in functional ability and preferences are part of everyday life experience. UD represents a paradigm for design of the built environment and products to address this diversity and increase use by all by introducing flexibility, choice and accommodating features to the physical world and business practices. The Global Universal Design Commission
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Definitions of Universal Design Universal design makes things more accessible, safer, and convenient for everyone. Also called “Design for All” or “Inclusive Design,” it is a philosophy that can be applied to policy, design and other practices to make products, environments and systems function better for a wider range of people. It developed in response to the diversity of human populations, their abilities and their needs. The Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDeA Center) The Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDeA Center)
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Definitions of Universal Design UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Article 2 – Definitions: ““Universal design” means the design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” ““Universal design” shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups of persons with disabilities where this is needed.”
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Design Powerful Influential Impact Social, Economic, Cultural, Environmental Acknowledge Diversity of the human ability What is normal? Enhance the human experience for all Paradigm shift: From “Special” to “Inclusive” Not possible to design for everybody Examples of UD?
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Example of Universal Design Curb cut. Wheelchair users bicycles, baby carriages, grocery carts, wheeled luggage etc Redesign was necessary Now accommodates multiple users, Blind people & Other mobile users in varying climate conditions Good universal design benefits everyone, Necessary to discover & meets user requirements
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science OXO Good Grip Peeler Easier to use with reduced dexterity or weak grip strength Collaboration with Smart Design Revolutionized the market Brought concept of universal design to mass market. Involved extensive research Ergonomic pioneers Multiple Awards
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Other examples Pedestrian Crossing: Visual Walk/ Don't Walk Audio: Beeps Vibration: people with hearing impairment/dual sensory loss TV Captions: originally for people with hearing loss but also used by many users eg language learning, developing literacy skills, watching TV on mute Access for All Wider doors/Flat entrances Lever door handles; Automatic Doors; Acccessible Toilets Placement of Electrical sockets/light switches Good light levels, Clear contrast (signs, doors, wall sockets et)
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Usability and aesthetics are mutually compatible.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Compare Medical ModelInteractional Model Can you say what is wrong with you?Can you say what is wrong with society? What complaint causes your difficulty in holding, gripping or turning things? What defects in the design of everyday equipment such as jars and bottles causes you difficulty in holding turning or gripping them? How difficult is it for you to get about your immediate neighbourhood on your own? What are the environmental constraints which make it difficult for you to get about in your immediate neighbourhood? Does your disability make it difficult for you to travel by bus? Do poorly designed buses make it difficult for someone with your disability to use them? Did you move here because of your disability problem? What inadequacies in your housing caused you to move here?
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Myths One product fits all Only achieved by specialist designers only Can be applied at the end of the design process A synonym for compliance with accessible design standards Only disabled and elderly people benefit Leads to aesthetically unattractive products
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Facts about Universal DesignUniversal Design Aims to improve the original design concept Maximise accessibility & usability of a product Aspires to benefit every member of the population Positive user experience of simple and intuitive design. Incorporates a user centered approach Requires an awareness and appreciation of the diverse abilities of people. It is a process not a product
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Universal design is... Not necessarily a specialist subject. Not a list of specifications; Not an add-on design approach. Not just about 'one size fits all' Not a replacement to the design of products targeted at specific markets Not just a synonym for `'accessibility”
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Policy UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – General Obligations: State Parties are “to undertake or promote research and development of universally designed goods, services, equipment and facilities ……………… to promote their availability and use, and to promote universal design in the development of standards and guidelines.”
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Policy Council of Europe Resolution 2001: On the incorporation of Universal Design into the design curriculum Draft Resolution 2007: On achieving full participation through Universal Design Disability Action Plan: Universal Design identified as “vital element of the implementation strategy” with specific reference to curriculum, ICT, built environment, products and services.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science EU e-Inclusion Policy Riga Ministerial Declaration June 2006 e-Accessibility - make ICT accessible to all Ageing - empower older people e-Competences - knowledge, skills and lifelong learning approach Socio-Cultural e-Inclusion - minorities, migrants and marginalised young people Geographical e-Inclusion - people in rural, remote and economically disadvantaged areas Inclusive eGovernment - better, more diverse public services for all
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 1/7 1:Equitable Use: The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. Guidelines: 1a. Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not. 1b. Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users. 1c. Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users. 1d. Make the design appealing to all users.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 1/7 / ICT Access for people unable to use the mouse or touch screen always available via keyboard Access for people with vision loss via screen readers & screen magnification Access for people with hearing loss synchronized captions for video content & transcripts for audio.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 2/7 2: Flexibility in Use--The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. Guidelines: 2a. Provide choice in methods of use. 2b. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. 2c. Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision. 2d. Provide adaptability to the user's pace.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 2/7 "The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities." Content should be accessible via a wide variety of devices Not dependent on users ability to be accurate or be speed determined Access via Braille displays or specialized software Allow for any timed response, like a web application time-out;
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 3/7 / 3: Simple and Intuitive Use--Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Guidelines: 3a. Eliminate unnecessary complexity. 3b. Be consistent with user expectations and intuition. 3c. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. 3d. Arrange information consistent with its importance. 3e. Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 3/7 "Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level." consistent design, clear instructions in simple and concise language, Feedback during and after task completion. Reduces stress and comprehension difficulties
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 4/7 4: Perceptible Information--The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. Guidelines: 4a. Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. 4b. Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. 4c. Maximize "legibility" of essential information. 4d. Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions). 4e. Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 4/7 "The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities." Provides multiple modes of presentation of essential information Differentiate essential information from peripheral or secondary content. Functionality is readily and intuitively apparent.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 5/7 5: Tolerance for Error--The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. Guidelines: 5a. Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. 5b. Provide warnings of hazards and errors. 5c. Provide fail safe features. 5d. Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 5/7 "The design minimizes hazards and the adverse effects of accidental or unintended actions." Fault tolerant. Mistake will either be autocorrected or user will receive warning Verifications will be are required for actions with risk eg deleting data Crucial for students with cognitive disabilities or those with motor difficulties. Errors should be easily identified, discoverable and addressed.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 6/7 6: Low Physical Effort--The design can be used efficiently and comfortably, and with a minimum of fatigue. Guidelines: 6a. Allow user to maintain a neutral body position. 6b. Use reasonable operating forces. 6c. Minimize repetitive actions. 6d. Minimize sustained physical effort.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 6/7 "The design can be used efficiently, comfortably, and with a minimum of fatigue." Intuitive web page layouts that follow norms and conventions Ensures movement through controls is logical and easily accomplished. Reasonable visual and spatial contrast between the functional areas of web pages Controls can be easily and effectively navigated using the keyboard alone. Keystroke short-cuts for major functionality. (where possible)
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 7/7 / Principle 7: Size and Space for Approach and Use-- Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulations and use regardless of user's body size, posture or mobility. Guidelines: 7a. Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user. 7b. Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user. 7c. Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. 7d. Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of Universal Design 7/7 "Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of the user's body size, posture, or mobility." Provide sufficient space between web page controls, including site navigation controls, and a large enough target area. Helps users with difficulties to using mouse Provide logical, visual and interactively distinct navigation and functional controls.
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Authors The above seven principles were compiled by advocates of universal design in 2007, listed in alphabetical order: → Bettye Rose Connell Mike Jones Ron MaceJim Mueller Abir Mullick Elaine Ostroff Jon SanfordEd Steinfeld Molly StoryGregg Vanderheiden
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Principles of UD
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Conclusion Broaden our understanding and experience Incorporate wide spectrum of user needs Flexible products Easier to use by all Lifelong learning opportunity Independent Living Social Inclusion Social Wellbeing Equal rights Anti-discrimination
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science 8 Lessons for creating social impact 1. Undervalue Your Own Ideas. 2. Don't Pursue Perfection. 3. You Are Not the Only Creative in the Room. 4. Your Perspective Is Not Automatically Unique. 5. Learn From Your Elders. 6. The Web Will Not Save You. 7. You Better Be In It for the Long Haul. 8. Don't Celebrate Too Early. Robert Fabricant
Advanced Topics HCIT © 2013 Department of Computer Science Summary Approach to design that aims to ensure that the object under design can be used by virtually everyone, regardless of their level of ability or disability. What is “normal”? Continuum of ability When more of us have a “disability” than not, universal design will indeed become universal. Denis Lembrée Aim is to achieve full participation in society for everybody through Universal Designfull participation in society
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