What happens when microbes gets past the first line of defence The body constantly makes defence cells to fight microbes. It keeps a store of them It makes many different kinds of defence cells to cope with all the different kinds of microbes and the different ways they can attack the body - some can be very sneaky!*
Let’s look at three of the defence cells Neutrophils – found in the blood stream. They are on the look out for microbes. When they find them they release chemicals that kill the germs but they die also – not to worry as the body makes about 5 thousand million every hour!!
Different kinds of defence cells Macrophages – they capture and eat the microbes, they also clean up any dust and dirt that gets into our body through breathing. Therefore there are lots of them to be found in the lungs.
Some defender cells make antibodies* that sticks to microbes and which Neutrophils and Macrophages are now able to remove. Different kinds of defence cells
The Immune System All the defender cells are part of our Immune System. Sometimes though, the immune system needs help and that is when the doctor may prescribe an antibiotic. Antibiotics can only kill bacteria they cannot kill viruses.
Video on the Immune System www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?lic=1&arti cle_set=59296&cat_id=20607www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?lic=1&arti cle_set=59296&cat_id=20607 www.kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/htbw_main_page.h tmlkidshealth.org/kid/htbw/htbw_main_page.h tml click on the immune cells
What we can do to prevent getting infected by bacteria and viruses Hygiene - Wash hands, use a tissue etc Eat healthy food to keep defender cells fighting fit and help good bacteria in body Eat good bacteria Exercise to help remove waste from body and keep lymph flowing Vaccinations
Scientist* found a way to protect us against some of the diseases that can make us ill It all began with a doctor called Edward Jenner…. The vaccinations have a weak form of the virus. When injected into our body it makes our white blood cells react as if the virus is still dangerous and makes antibodies The virus is too weak to make us ill but now we have antibodies ready so if the original measles virus gets into our body we already have the weapon to attack it straight away and so we do not get ill or only feel mildly unwell
Good bacteria Not all bacteria hurt us some help us, some live in our intestines they help by; Making a waste product that we need and can use e.g. vitamins – Biotin, Folic Acid, Vit B12 Making Vitamin K which helps the blood to clot Strengthening our immune system to fight the bad germs – or even directly attacking and digesting some of the bad germs in the gut
Where do the good bacteria come from? They are all around us Raw foods e.g. on skins of grapes In live Probiotic yoghurts and yoghurt drinks like Yakhult Passed from mum to baby
What we can do to increase the good bacteria? Eat them – through live yoghurts etc Dried form in capsules Feed them by eating - - Whole oats and other whole grains - Fresh vegetables e.g.wheatgrass to chicory, cabbage, onions, leeks and asparagus - Pumpkin, sunflower and other seeds; - Lignans in liquids like olive oil and aloe vera. - Fresh and dried fruits like bananas and apricots.
Sometimes the defender cells get it wrong When this happens it can trigger hay fever or asthma - difficulty breathing properly, sneezing, itchy eyes, etc.
Why this happens When pollen, dust, cats and dogs skin cells are breathed in some people’s defender cells think these are harmful and make antibodies that stick onto defender cells called Basophils. When next time any of these things are breathed in by a person whose Basophils contain an antibody specific for one of them then the Basophils explode as they meets the pollen grains and release cell-destroying chemicals that make you have the symptoms of hay fever.