Presentation on theme: "Arousal P4/M2 P4 describe three theories of arousal and the effect on sports performance M2 explain three theories of arousal and the effect on sports."— Presentation transcript:
1ArousalP4/M2P4 describe three theories of arousal and the effect on sports performanceM2 explain three theories of arousal and the effect on sports performance
2Definitions…A positive aspect of stress and shows how motivated we are by a situation.The more aroused we become, the more interested and excited we are by the situation.‘A general physiological and psychological activation of the organism (person) that varies on a continuum from deep sleep to intense excitement’.
3Continuum Arousal continuum showing varying levels of arousal… Deep Sleep Mild Interest Attentive Absorbed Engrossed Frenzied
4SomaticCognitiveArousal can be Cognitive- involving thought processes… or even Somatic- involving a change in bodily response.If we become over-aroused this usually has a negative affect on performance, caused by anxiety and stress.
5Theories of arousal Drive theory Inverted ‘U’ theory Catastrophe theoryEach theory has its use in explaining the relationship between arousal and level of performance…
6Drive theoryDrive theory suggests a linear relationship between arousal and performance.Hull (1943): As arousal levels rise, so does performance. In a linear fashion.Having positive effect on performance!!
7Later research adapted this theory, proposing that the performer’s dominant habit or response would be more evident as his or her arousal level increased.Yet…Dominant response: if a skill is learned well= positive performance. If the performer is a novice… how will this affect their performance??This relationship is expressed as P = f (H x D)Where P = performance f = function H = dominant habit or response and D = Drive or level of arousal
8Inverted ‘U’ theoryA – Under aroused – performer may show lack of concentration and attentionB – Optimal level of arousal, good selective attention and level of concentrationC – Over aroused – performer may lose focus, miss cues, become anxious, experience muscle tension, make poor decisions and possibly display aggressive behaviour
9Each individual will have a different optimal level of arousal/ IPS (ideal performing state). These factors need to be considered when attempting to determine the personal optimum level of arousal.TASK:With a partner discuss how the following factors may influence optimal arousal.Nature of the taskSkill level of the performerPersonality of the performer
12Catastrophe theory The drop in performance is called Cotastrophe! Adapted further by Fazey and Hardy (1988)… agreeing with the ‘Inverted U hypothesis’, but once arousal level has reached a certain point, the IPS drops DRASTICALLY, rather than STEADILY!The drop in performance is called Cotastrophe!
13Rank the following activities in order (1 to 10) of importance for high levels of arousal. Golf puttHigh JumpHockey penalty flickBoxingArchery100m sprintRugbyPistol shootingWeight liftingGymnastic vault