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OSHA Office of Training & Education1 Introduction to OSHA.

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Presentation on theme: "OSHA Office of Training & Education1 Introduction to OSHA."— Presentation transcript:

1 OSHA Office of Training & Education1 Introduction to OSHA

2 OSHA Office of Training & Education2 What is OSHA? l Occupational Safety and Health Administration l Responsible for worker safety and health protection

3 OSHA Office of Training & Education3 Is there a need for OSHA? l More than 90 million Americans spend their days on the job. l Nearly 6,000 fatalities l 50,000 work-related illnesses deaths l 5.7 million non-fatal workplace injuries l Injuries costs - over $125 billion Each year... Source - OSHA Publication 2056

4 OSHA Office of Training & Education4 The Need for Legislation Until 1970, no uniform & comprehensive provisions existed for protection against workplace S&H hazards. Until 1970, no uniform & comprehensive provisions existed for protection against workplace S&H hazards.

5 OSHA Office of Training & Education5 The Need for Legislation In 1970, Congress considered these annual figures: l 14,000 worker deaths l 2.5 million workers disabled l 300,000 new occupational disease cases

6 OSHA Office of Training & Education6 Public Law The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970 OSH Act

7 OSHA Office of Training & Education7 l "... to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources." An Act

8 OSHA Office of Training & Education8 OSHAS Purpose - Section 2 l Encourage reduced workplace hazards l Implement new/improve existing S&H programs l Provide for S&H research l Establish employer / employee responsibilities for S&H conditions. l Build on employer/employee S&H initiatives.

9 OSHA Office of Training & Education9 OSHAS Purpose - Section 2 l Occ. health focus to prevent diseases in the work environment. l Establish training to increase number & competence l Develop mandatory job S&H standards l Enforce these effectively l Develop recordkeeping & reporting requirements l Provides assistance, training & other support programs to help employers and workers

10 OSHA Office of Training & Education10 OSHAS Purpose - Section 2 l Provide for the development, analysis, evaluation and approval of state occupational safety and health programs.

11 OSHA Office of Training & Education11 Has OSHA Made a Difference? l Helped cut the work-related fatality rate 50% l Worked with employers / employees to reduce workplace injuries & illnesses by 40% l Virtually eliminated brown lung disease, and l Reduced trenching & excavation fatalities by 35% YES! Since 1970: Source: Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, BLS, U.S. DOL.

12 OSHA Office of Training & Education12 Who is covered by the OSH Act? l Most private sector employees l Coverage is provided directly by federal OSHA or through an OSHA-approved state program

13 OSHA Office of Training & Education13 The Acts Coverage Includes l Manufacturing l Construction l Longshoring l Agriculture l Law and medicine l Charity and disaster relief l Organized labor l Private education.

14 OSHA Office of Training & Education14 NOT Covered l Self-employed persons (i.e. : homeowners); l Farms at which only immediate family members are employed; l Worksites / conditions regulated by other federal agencies under other federal statutes* * Areas not covered specifically are still covered by OSHA.

15 OSHA Office of Training & Education15 OSHA Standards l OSHA develops and enforces standards that employers must follow. l OSHA-approved States programs must set standards at least as effective as federal standards.

16 OSHA Office of Training & Education16 What does OSHA Require? l Determine which standards apply to your workplace 1910 General Industry 1910 General Industry 1926 Construction 1926 Construction 1928 Agriculture 1928 Agriculture l Follow the OSHA standards and requirements

17 OSHA Office of Training & Education17 Duties - Section 5 l Where OSHA has not promulgated specific standards, employers are responsible for following the Act's General Duty Clause {Section 5(a)(1)}. l Each employer - shall furnish...a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees."

18 OSHA Office of Training & Education18 Inspections, Investigations & Recordkeeping - Section 8 l 8(a) OSHA representatives are authorized: (1) To enter without delay, at reasonable times, & (2) To inspect during regular working hours and at reasonable times and to question privately employers and employees l 8(b) Subpoena power l 8(c) Recordkeeping and posting l 8(f) Employees right of complaint

19 OSHA Office of Training & Education19 Citations - Section 9 l (a) If an employer violates Section 5 of Act or any standard, a citation will be issued. Each citation will: Be in writing Be in writing Describe the particular violation Describe the particular violation Fix a reasonable abatement period Fix a reasonable abatement period l (b) Posting of citations l (c) Time limit - 6 months to issue citation

20 OSHA Office of Training & Education20 Enforcement - Section 10 l (a) Employers right of contest; Citations can be contested before the Safety and Health Review Commission, an independent quasi-judicial branch of the Department of Labor l (c) Employees right of contest of abatement dates

21 OSHA Office of Training & Education21 Judicial Review - Section 11 l (a) Appeals & review of Commission order l (c) Prohibits discrimination against employees filing complaints under OSHA

22 OSHA Office of Training & Education22 Penalties Section 17 l Penalties increased in 1990 l Willful & repeated violations-maximum $ 70K l Minimum $ 5,000 – Willful l Serious & Other than Serious to $ 7,000 l Failure to abate –max of $ 7000/day violation continues

23 OSHA Office of Training & Education23 Title 29 l Title 29 is set aside for OSHA l The regulations are broken down into Parts l Part 1926, are the Construction Standards l Each Part is then broken into major Subparts

24 OSHA Office of Training & Education24 Part 1926 Major Subparts l Subpart D - Occupational Health and Environmental Controls l Subpart E - Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment l Subpart F - Fire Protection and Prevention l Subpart G - Signs, Signals and Barricades l Subpart H - Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

25 OSHA Office of Training & Education25 Part 1926 Major Subparts l Subpart I - Tools – Hand and Power l Subpart J - Welding and Cutting l Subpart K - Electrical l Subpart L - Scaffolds l Subpart M - Fall Protection l Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators and Conveyors

26 OSHA Office of Training & Education26 Part 1926 Major Subparts l Subpart O - Motor Vehicles l Subpart P - Excavations l Subpart Q - Concrete and Masonry Construction l Subpart R - Steel Erection l Subpart S - Underground Construction l Subpart Z - Stairways and Ladders l Each Subpart is then broken down into Sections

27 OSHA Office of Training & Education27 Reading Standards l 29 CFR (g)(4)(i) l 29 United States Code Title l CFR Code of Federal Regulations l 1926 Part - Part 1926 covers Construction l {Subpart: Subpart L - Scaffolds} l 451 Section Number; General Requirements l (g) Major Paragraph; Fall Protection l (4) Paragraph Subsection; Guardrail Systems l (i) Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms.

28 OSHA Office of Training & Education28 29 CFR (j) (4) (ii) (C) (1) Lower Case Alphabetical Italicized Arabic Number Upper Case Alphabetical Lower Case Roman Arabic Number

29 OSHA Office of Training & Education29

30 OSHA Office of Training & Education30 Recordkeeping and Reporting Employers of 11+ employees must maintain records of occupational injuries & illnessesEmployers of 11+ employees must maintain records of occupational injuries & illnesses All employers must display the OSHA posterAll employers must display the OSHA poster Must report any accident resulting in a fatality or in-patient hospitalization of 3 or more employees within 8 hrs.Must report any accident resulting in a fatality or in-patient hospitalization of 3 or more employees within 8 hrs.

31 OSHA Office of Training & Education31 Recordkeeping Forms l 300 Log maintained on a calendar year basis l 300A Summary for the previous year must be posted from February through April

32 OSHA Office of Training & Education32 What are workers responsibilities? l Read the OSHA poster l Follow employers safety & health rules l Wear or use all required gear and equipment l Follow safe work practices, as directed by your employer l Report hazardous conditions l Report hazardous conditions to OSHA, if employers do not fix them l Cooperate with OSHA inspectors (see OSHA Workers' web page for more information)

33 OSHA Office of Training & Education33 OSHA Workers' Page

34 OSHA Office of Training & Education34 What are workers rights? l Identify & correct problems, working with their employers whenever possible l To complain to OSHA about workplace conditions threatening their health or safety - in person, by telephone, by fax, by mail or electronically through OSHAs web site l Section 11(c) of the OSH Act gives workers the right to seek safe and healthful conditions on the job without being disciplined or fired (see OSHA Workers' web page for more information)

35 OSHA Office of Training & Education35 What are employers rights & responsibilities? l Provide a workplace free of recognized hazards l Follow the OSHA standards l The OSH Act grants employers important rights, particularly during and after an OSHA inspection l Employers must provide training, medical examinations and recordkeeping

36 OSHA Office of Training & Education36 Competent Person in Construction A person who; A person who; Knows the right standard, Knows the right standard, Can identify hazards in the operation, and Can identify hazards in the operation, and Is designated by the employer, and has the authority to take appropriate actions. Is designated by the employer, and has the authority to take appropriate actions. "Competent Person" is found in many standards. "Competent Person" is found in many standards. Some standards set specific requirements for the "competent person." Some standards set specific requirements for the "competent person."

37 OSHA Office of Training & Education37 Workplace Inspections Establishments covered by the OSH Act are subject to inspection by OSHA compliance safety and health officers (CSHOs) Establishments covered by the OSH Act are subject to inspection by OSHA compliance safety and health officers (CSHOs) Most inspections are conducted without advance notice Most inspections are conducted without advance notice

38 OSHA Office of Training & Education38 What Types of Hazards are Addressed in Standards? l Electrical l Cranes l Falls l Excavation l Confined Spaces l l Scaffolding l l Machines l l Stairways & Ladders l l Chemical l l Physical

39 OSHA Office of Training & Education39 Employer may Qualify for "Focused Inspection" l Has to meet certain conditions Adequate S&H program AND Adequate S&H program AND Designated competent person Designated competent person l Inspector will "focus" on these four hazard areas: Falls Falls Struck by Struck by Caught in/between Caught in/between Electrical Electrical

40 OSHA Office of Training & Education40 Inspection Process l CSHO displays official credentials l Opening conference l Walk-around inspection l Closing conference

41 OSHA Office of Training & Education41 Conducting the Walkaround Inspection l CSHO & accompanying representatives (employer and employee) inspect for potentially hazardous working conditions l CSHO discusses possible corrective actions l CSHO may consult, at times privately, with employees

42 OSHA Office of Training & Education42 What Happens After an OSHA Inspection? l May or may not issue citations l Citations inform employer and employees of the regulations and standards allegedly violated and of the proposed time for abatement l Employer must post a copy of each citation at or near place where violation occurred, for 3 days or until violation is corrected, whichever is longer

43 OSHA Office of Training & Education43 Sources of Assistance OSHA web site (www.osha.gov)OSHA web site (www.osha.gov) Consultation assistanceConsultation assistance Federal and State area officesFederal and State area offices Speakers, publications, a/v aids, technical advice Speakers, publications, a/v aids, technical advice Training and educationTraining and education OSHA Training Institute (OTI) and the OTI Education Centers OSHA Training Institute (OTI) and the OTI Education Centers OSHA Outreach Training Program OSHA Outreach Training Program OSHA Office of State ProgramsOSHA Office of State Programs Voluntary Protection ProgramsVoluntary Protection Programs

44 OSHA Office of Training & Education44 OSHA Web Site (www.osha.gov) l About OSHA (events, whats new...) l Compliance Assistance (regulations, directives, consultation, eTools, training...) l Cooperative Programs (VPP, partnerships …) l News Room (publications, news releases...) l Safety / Health Topics (technical links to various topics) l Statistics (Inspection data, BLS survey link...)

45 OSHA Office of Training & Education45 Where to Get OSHA Standards l Federal Register in public libraries or at GPO web site l CD-ROM subscription through U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) l Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in public libraries and through GPO l OSHA web site - OSHA standards, interpretations, directives (www.osha.gov)

46 OSHA Office of Training & Education46 Consultation Assistance l Provided at no cost l Developed for smaller employers with more hazardous operations l Delivered by state government agencies or universities employing professional safety and health consultants l No penalties are proposed or citations issued l Possible violations of OSHA standards are not reported to OSHA enforcement staff unless employer fails to eliminate or control any serious hazard or imminent danger

47 OSHA Office of Training & Education47 OSHA Emergency Hot-Line OSHA Report workplace safety or health fatalities or the hospitalization of 3 or more employees Report a workplace hazard File a complaint about a workplace hazard Request information on OSHA Request an OSHA publication

48 OSHA Office of Training & Education48 Summary l OSHA helps save lives and prevent injuries l OSHA balances a cooperative approach with traditional enforcement l OSHA standards are the enforceable requirements for worker safety and health l Inspections are OSHAs way to ensure compliance l OSHA offers various means of assistance


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