In the Middle Ages, York was home to great wealth and great squalor. It was noisy and crowded: the city was filled with narrow lanes crammed with houses. Some had yards where they kept pigs and other animals. But there were also gardens and orchards within the city, and the open country and farmland was never far away. Documents suggest that the wealthy invested in property. The earliest, accurately dated house to survive is a two-storey terrace called Our Lady’s Row in Goodramgate, which dates back to 1316. As the 14th century progressed building techniques improved and thatched roofs were replaced by tiles.
Baynard castle in cottingham Buried and earthwork remains of part of a medieval magnate's residence, which has been known as Baynard Castle since at least the 19th century. The monument includes the inner court, the full circuit of the inner moat, part of the outer court which retains known medieval archaeological remains, and the undeveloped part of the surrounding defensive bank. The rest of the outer court, defensive bank and surrounding outer moat have been developed for housing during the 20th century, and the level of archaeological survival in this part is unknown and it is therefore not included in the scheduling.
The wide River Humber forms the southern boundary of East Yorkshire and separates Yorkshire from Lincolnshire. It is undoubtedly the most obvious historic dividing line between the North of England and the Midlands. Humber is a Celtic river name meaning 'good- well' and the root of the name can be traced back to the Sanskrit 'Ambhas' meaning water. The antiquity of the name demonstrates the river's importance. The Humber gave its name to the ancient kingdom of Northumbria - the land north of the Humber which once stretched as far north as Edinburgh - and the river forms one of the largest river estuaries in England, matched only by the River Severn and the River Thames. The Humber is formed by the confluence of Yorkshire's River Ouse with that famous river of the midlands called the Trent. The two rivers merge at Faxfleet, about six miles east of the port of Goole.
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