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Competition and ‘Trusted Computing’ Ross Anderson Cambridge University and Foundation for Information Policy Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Competition and ‘Trusted Computing’ Ross Anderson Cambridge University and Foundation for Information Policy Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Competition and ‘Trusted Computing’ Ross Anderson Cambridge University and Foundation for Information Policy Research

2 Economics and Security Over the last four years, we’ve started to apply economic analysis to information security Over the last four years, we’ve started to apply economic analysis to information security Economic analysis often explains security failure better! Bank customers suffer when bank systems allow fraud, patients suffer when hospital systems break privacy Economic analysis often explains security failure better! Bank customers suffer when bank systems allow fraud, patients suffer when hospital systems break privacy People who can protect a system are not the people who suffer when it’s hacked People who can protect a system are not the people who suffer when it’s hacked And information security mechanisms are used increasingly to support business models rather than manage risk And information security mechanisms are used increasingly to support business models rather than manage risk

3 New Uses of Infosec Xerox started using authentication in ink cartridges to tie them to the printer. Followed by HP, Lexmark and others Xerox started using authentication in ink cartridges to tie them to the printer. Followed by HP, Lexmark and others Motorola started authenticating batteries to mobile phones Motorola started authenticating batteries to mobile phones BMW now has a prototype car that authenticates its major components BMW now has a prototype car that authenticates its major components Increasingly crypto is used to lock customers in, tie products, bundle services, enforce cross- subsidies and rig markets generally Increasingly crypto is used to lock customers in, tie products, bundle services, enforce cross- subsidies and rig markets generally Now ‘Trusted Computing’ will deepen this Now ‘Trusted Computing’ will deepen this

4 What’s Software Worth? The value of a software company is the total switching costs of all its customers The value of a software company is the total switching costs of all its customers E.g., law firm with 100 fee earners paying £500 a seat for Office -> it would cost £50K to retrain everyone to use OpenOffice, convert files etc E.g., law firm with 100 fee earners paying £500 a seat for Office -> it would cost £50K to retrain everyone to use OpenOffice, convert files etc In software, lock-in plays the role that patents do in the drug industry In software, lock-in plays the role that patents do in the drug industry Same holds for many other online services Same holds for many other online services

5 Rights Management and Competition IRM – Information Rights Management – changes ownership of a file from the machine owner to the file creator IRM – Information Rights Management – changes ownership of a file from the machine owner to the file creator Files are encrypted and associated with rights management information Files are encrypted and associated with rights management information The file creator can specify that a file can only be read by Mr. X, and only till date Y The file creator can specify that a file can only be read by Mr. X, and only till date Y Now shipping in Office 2003 Now shipping in Office 2003 What will be the effect on the typical business that uses PCs? What will be the effect on the typical business that uses PCs?

6 TC (Trusted / Trustworthy / Treacherous Computing) ‘ Trusted Computing Group’ (TCG) redsigning PCs to give better support to DRM, to the IRM mechanisms in Office 2003, to online software registration etc ‘ Trusted Computing Group’ (TCG) redsigning PCs to give better support to DRM, to the IRM mechanisms in Office 2003, to online software registration etc Idea – put a TPM (smartcard) chip in every PC motherboard, PDA, mobile phone Idea – put a TPM (smartcard) chip in every PC motherboard, PDA, mobile phone This will do remote attestation of what the machine is and what software it’s running This will do remote attestation of what the machine is and what software it’s running On top of this will be layers of software providing new security functionality, of a kind that would otherwise be easily circumvented On top of this will be layers of software providing new security functionality, of a kind that would otherwise be easily circumvented

7 Why is Microsoft so Keen? At present, a company with 100 PCs pays maybe £500 per seat for Office At present, a company with 100 PCs pays maybe £500 per seat for Office Remember – value of software company = total switching costs Remember – value of software company = total switching costs So – cost of retraining everyone to use Linux, converting files etc is maybe £50,000 So – cost of retraining everyone to use Linux, converting files etc is maybe £50,000 But once many of the documents can’t be converted without the creators’ permission, the switching cost is much higher But once many of the documents can’t be converted without the creators’ permission, the switching cost is much higher Bill: ‘we came to this thinking about music but then realised documents and were much more interesting’ Bill: ‘we came to this thinking about music but then realised documents and were much more interesting’

8 Strategic Issues Who will control users’ data? Who will control users’ data? Microsoft view – everything will be on an MS platform (your WP files, presentations, address book, pictures, movies, music) Microsoft view – everything will be on an MS platform (your WP files, presentations, address book, pictures, movies, music) European Commission view – this is illegal anticompetitive behaviour European Commission view – this is illegal anticompetitive behaviour Anti-trust judgment – orders MS to unbundle Media Player Anti-trust judgment – orders MS to unbundle Media Player Also, German government view on competition policy requirements on TCG Also, German government view on competition policy requirements on TCG

9 Competitive Issues For years, Microsoft’s vision has been to control a framework into which all user data is drawn, and in which it is then managed For years, Microsoft’s vision has been to control a framework into which all user data is drawn, and in which it is then managed TC could extend Microsoft’s market power from the PC to PDAs, phones, music systems, … TC could extend Microsoft’s market power from the PC to PDAs, phones, music systems, … If this works it is bad news for free markets, and for vendors of phones / consumer electronics If this works it is bad news for free markets, and for vendors of phones / consumer electronics Even if not, TC could have all sorts of effects on software and online industries Even if not, TC could have all sorts of effects on software and online industries

10 Competitive Issues (2) At present, there are many petabytes of ‘free’ data for new apps to use (I.e., your data) At present, there are many petabytes of ‘free’ data for new apps to use (I.e., your data) In future, apps can use TC mechanisms to lock in users by locking down their data In future, apps can use TC mechanisms to lock in users by locking down their data Successful app vendors can rent out access to your data on your own PC to other apps Successful app vendors can rent out access to your data on your own PC to other apps Software startups will have lower probability of success, though the winners will win bigger Software startups will have lower probability of success, though the winners will win bigger The software industry will become much less dynamic, more like a ‘normal’ industry - at a cost in growth and jobs (especially in LDCs) The software industry will become much less dynamic, more like a ‘normal’ industry - at a cost in growth and jobs (especially in LDCs)

11 Competitive Issues (3) Playstation model - subsidize hardware from later software sales Playstation model - subsidize hardware from later software sales a PC costs $399 in Walmart, a TC $ a PC costs $399 in Walmart, a TC $ you buy an Office Plan for $29.95 a month including unlimited Word and Excel with 500 anytime Powerpoint minutes per month. The hardware comes free you buy an Office Plan for $29.95 a month including unlimited Word and Excel with 500 anytime Powerpoint minutes per month. The hardware comes free What will the effect on free software? What will the effect on free software? What’s the effect on the Internal Market? Firms will want and be able to price discriminate What’s the effect on the Internal Market? Firms will want and be able to price discriminate And the pervasive computing future??? And the pervasive computing future???

12 Conclusion TC has nasty effects on competition policy (see my website for more detail) TC has nasty effects on competition policy (see my website for more detail) It’s a cynical way of twisting the TRIPs anti- circumvention prohibitions into a general- purpose anti-competitive tool It’s a cynical way of twisting the TRIPs anti- circumvention prohibitions into a general- purpose anti-competitive tool But enough firms will get hurt that we can surely build momentum against it But enough firms will get hurt that we can surely build momentum against it A digital rights directive must buttress not just consumer freedoms but also market freedoms A digital rights directive must buttress not just consumer freedoms but also market freedoms It’s not just about music - it’s about everything contain software! That is, just about everything It’s not just about music - it’s about everything contain software! That is, just about everything


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