Presentation on theme: "Introduction to MARC Records and RDA"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to MARC Records and RDA Several months ago while visiting with a friend who is a school library media specialist, I learned that she really doesn’t know much about MARC records or the rules that should be followed when creating original records for new library materials. So I thought it would be worthwhile to present a brief overview about MARC records and RDA, the new cataloging standard. For some of you, this may simply be a review, but hopefully this information will be helpful to others here today who are in a similar situation as my friend.Loralyn FelixFebruary 6, 2012
2Have you ever considered how long it might take you to determine whether or not your library has a specific book if you didn’t have either a print or an online catalog to look in? Suppose you’re pretty certain the book is in the library somewhere, but all of the materials in the library have been put on the shelves haphazardly. Since nothing in the library is in any particular order on the shelves, how do you decide where to start looking for the book, and how long do you suppose it would take you to find it if you ended up having to look through most of the books before you located it?
3“Access to information does not happen by accident or by magic.” Allison G. Kaplan and Ann Marlow RiedlingCatalog It!: A Guide to Cataloging School Library MaterialsAs Allison G. Kaplan and Ann Marlow Riedling stated in their book Catalog It!: A Guide to Cataloging School Library Materials (pg. 13), “access to information does not happen by accident or by magic.” In school libraries, it’s up to the library media specialists to make sure library materials are easily accessible.
4CatalogingCataloging is an important part of a school library media specialists work!Well maintained library catalogs…Let users know what is availableEnsure library materials are easily accessibleTherefore, the process of cataloging is a very important part of a school library media specialist’s work. Well maintained library catalogs quickly let users know what is available and ensure that all library materials are easily accessible. The library catalog functions much like an index for a book. An index helps readers quickly find information in a book without having to actually look at every page. Likewise, a library catalog provides users with a way to easily identify and locate the materials available in the library.
5CatalogingIn the past, librarians kept track of library holdings with handwritten or typed records that were filed in card catalogs.In the past, librarians kept track of library holdings with handwritten or typed records that were filed in card catalogs. Typing cards sets was one of the main things I did for the library job that I had during college, and I remember spending many, many hours filing cards into the card catalog after I began working in the library again several years later.
6CatalogingCard catalogs typically provided three main access points for materialsMain author’s nameTitle of the itemSubject(s) covered in the itemSometimes other access points were includedAdditional authorsIllustratorsName of seriesA card catalog typically provided three main access points for materials: main author’s name, title of the item, and subject(s) covered in the item. Sometimes other access points were provided such as additional authors, illustrators, and names of series. However, every added access point required another card, a little more space, and extra work on the part of the librarian. Therefore, the amount of information available in the card catalog needed to be somewhat limited.
7CatalogingNow, librarians use computers to create records and upload them into online catalogs.Now, librarians use computers to create records that contain numerous details about each item and then upload the records into online catalogs. With computerized catalogs, users can have access to a lot more information about library materials than they could in the past with physical catalogs.
8MARC Records MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC) format... Possible to encode records so that all areas can be searchableThe Library of Congress establishes official rules and documentationLibraries throughout the world follow this professional standardTo make it possible for computers to interpret the information found in cataloging records, libraries follow a standard professional practice called MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC). The development of MARC has made it possible to encode the various parts of a record so that all areas of it can be searchable. The Library of Congress establishes the official rules and documentation for cataloging in MARC format, and libraries throughout the world follow this professional standard.
9MARC RecordsSchool library media automation systems such as Alexandria and Koha have been programmed to recognize MARC filesVendor supplied records easily loadedMARC records found in other library’s online catalogs downloaded and importedOriginal MARC records can be created by manually entering information into a templateSchool library media automation systems such as Alexandria and Koha have been programmed to recognize MARC files. This makes it possible for vendor supplied records that were created using MARC to easily be imported into the online catalogs and MARC records found in other library’s online catalogs to be downloaded and imported. In addition, original MARC records can be created by manually entering information about items into a system provided template. Since school library media specialists sometimes find it necessary to either edit existing records or create new ones, it’s helpful for them to have a basic understanding about MARC records.
10What does a MARC record look like? The computer sees…01356cam a 101210s maua c eng a7bcbccorignewd1eecipf20gy-gencatlg0 aacquireb2 shelf copiesxpolicy default bxc cxc axc ixc swapped the a.e. and the m.e., added qualifer to John Paterson's name, added title a.e., to cipaxn copy rec'd., to CIP ver.fxc copy 1 to shelftrc copy 2 to BCCD a a aDLCcDLCdDLC alcacapcc00aPZ8.P273bFl 201100a[Fic]2221 aPaterson, Johnq(John Barstow)14aThe flint heart :ba fairy story /cby Katherine and John Paterson ; illustrated by John Rocco. a1st ed. aSomerville, Mass. :bCandlewick Press,c2011. a288 :bcol. ill. ;c22 cm. a"Freely abridged from Eden Phillpotts's 1910 fantasy." a"Reinforced trade edition"--Jkt. aA magical amulet brings power and despair to those who touch it. 1aFairy tales.1 aPaterson, Katherine.1 aRocco, John,eill.1 aPhillpotts, Eden,d tFlint heart.What does a MARC record look like? First of all, let’s take a look at a MARC record as a computer sees it.
11What does a MARC record look like? cam a a s2011 maua c eng 906 __ |a 7 |b cbc |c orignew |d 1 |e ecip |f 20 |g y-gencatlg 925 0_ |a acquire |b 2 shelf copies |x policy default 955 __ |b xc |c xc |a xc |i xc swapped the a.e. and the m.e., added qualifer to John Paterson’s name, added title a.e., to cip |a xn copy rec’d., to CIP ver. |f xc copy 1 to shelf |t rc copy 2 to BCCD 010 __ |a __ |a __ |a DLC |c DLC |d DLC 042 __ |a lcac |a pcc |a PZ8.P273 |b Fl |a [Fic] | _ |a Paterson, John |q (John Barstow) |a The flint heart : |b a fairy story / |c by Katherine and John Paterson ; illustrated by John Rocco. 250 __ |a 1st ed. 260 __ |a Somerville, Mass. : |b Candlewick Press, |c __ |a 288 : |b col. ill. ; |c 22 cm. 500 __ |a "Freely abridged from Eden Phillpotts’s 1910 fantasy." 500 __ |a "Reinforced trade edition"--Jkt. 520 __ |a A magical amulet brings power and despair to those who touch it. 650 _1 |a Fairy tales _ |a Paterson, Katherine _ |a Rocco, John, |e ill _ |a Phillpotts, Eden, |d |t Flint heart.This is what a MARC record looks like as formatted by cataloging software in the Library of Congress Online Catalog.
12What does a MARC record look like? And this is how the record appears in the online catalog without the MARC tags.
13MARC Records“The good news is that catalogers don’t have to know exactly how the computer finds the information but they do need to know where to put the information, and how to tag it, so that the computer can do its job.”Karen BurnsSW Iowa Regional Library“The good news is that catalogers don’t have to know exactly how the computer finds the information but they do need to know where to put the information, and how to tag it, so that the computer can do its job.”
14MARC records The basic divisions of a MARC record are: 0XX Control information, standard and classification numbers, codes 1XX Main entry (author or body responsible for the work) 2XX Titles, edition, imprint (in general, the title, statement of responsibility, edition, and publication information) 3XX Physical description, etc. 4XX Series statements (as shown in the item) 5XX Notes 6XX Subject added entries 7XX Added entries other than subject or series 8XX Series added entries (other authoritative forms)9XX Local library information (Not part of the USMARC format)Bibliographic records are divided into fields. These are the basic divisions of a MARC record. Each X represents the use of a digit from O to 9. The 9XX fields are not part of the USMARC format, but they are sometimes used to add local library information. For example, the SUU Library uses the 949 field to enter the barcode number and price of the item being cataloged.
15MARC records Most commonly used MARC tags include: 010 Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) 020 International Standard Book Number (ISBN) 100 Personal name main entry (author) 245 Title information (includes title information and statement of responsibility) 250 Edition 260 Publication information 300 Physical description 490 Series statement 520 Annotation or summary note 650 Topical subject heading 700 Personal name added entry (joint author, editor, or illustrator)Each field is identified by a tag. The most commonly used MARC tags include the following:
16MARC recordsSome fields are further defined by indicators. In the 245 field below, the field tag is followed by two indicators. There are also three subfields which are identified by delimiters and subfield codes.$a The flint heart : $b a fairy story / $c by Katherine and John Paterson ; illustrated by John Rocco.Some fields are further defined by indicators. Each indicator value is a number from 0 to 9. For example in the 245 field below, the field tag is followed by two indicators. The first indicator 1 shows that a title added entry is needed for this record, and the second indicator 4 shows the number of non-filing characters in this title entry. When the computer alphabetizes this title in a list, the first four letters and spaces will be ignored. In this example of the 245 field, there are also three subfields which are identified by delimiters and subfield codes.
17CatalogingRules and standards govern the way information is entered into MARC recordsAnglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second Edition (AACR2)Cataloging code followed in North America since 1978Revisions have been made to accommodate new types of resources and changes in technologyResource Description and Access (RDA) will soon replace AACR2Established rules and standards govern the way the information is entered into the MARC record. Since 1978, the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second Edition (AACR2) have been used by librarians throughout North America. Although revisions have been made through the years to mainly accommodate new types of resources and changes in technology, the basic rules have remained the same. In recent years, catalogers frequently have found the AACR2 rules too specific when cataloging some of the new formats. As a result, a new standard called Resource Description and Access (RDA) has been developed to replace AACR2.
18Cataloging Resource Description and Access (RDA) Designed to better accommodate the digital environment and intended toSupport all types of content and mediaWork well with newly emerging resourcesFunction in a variety of technological environments (MARC 21 for now, Web environment in the future)Backward compatible with AACR2Library of Congress (LC) plans to complete transition to RDA by March 31, 2013RDA has been designed to meet the challenges of our digital world. It will support all types of content and media and work well with newly emerging resources. RDA will function in a variety of technological environments – MARC 21 for now, but it is intended that it will also work in a Web environment in the future. It has been developed to be backward compatible with AACR2, so the new RDA records will co-exist with the AACR2 records already in library catalogs. About a year ago, the Library of Congress announced that it would make the transition to RDA during the coming year and be fully cataloging materials using the new standard by March 31, Since the Library of Congress has been testing RDA for a while now, there are already some RDA records available. The catalogers in the SUU library have noticed more and more of them becoming available and have been selecting the RDA records to import into the catalog for the last several months.
19Cataloging Catalogers will need to… Learn new terminology Main Entry = Preferred Access PointAuthorized Heading = Authorized Access Point“See” References = Variant Access PointsUnderstand how to enter informationMost traditional cataloging abbreviations will be replaced with words and phrasesInformation will be recorded as it appearsOther changesAs catalogers shift towards using RDA they will need to learn new terminology as well as understand how to enter information according to the new rules. For example, Main Entry = Preferred Access Point, Authorized Heading = Authorized Access Point, “See” references = Variant Access points, most traditional cataloging abbreviations will be replaced with words and phrases, information will be recorded as it appears, and various other changes.
20Cataloging“Terminology should be understandable across a wide range of information environments, not just in the library community.”[S.l.] [Place of publication not identified] [s.n.] [Publisher not identified] p. pages v. volumes col. ill. color illustrations b&w black and white ill. IllustrationsWith RDA the goal is that “Terminology should be understandable across a wide range of information environments, not just in the library community.” Many abbreviations will be replaced with words and phrases.
21Cataloging Catalogers will need to… Include relationship information in 100/110 and 700/710 fields using $eStart using new MARC fields (a few examples)264 tag in place of 260 tag for publication information336 tag for Content type$a text $2 rdacontent $a spoken word $2 rdacontent337 tag for Media type$a unmediated $2 rdamedia $ audio $2 rdamedia338 tag for Carrier type$a volume $2 rdacarrier $ computer disc $2 rdacarrierCatalogers will also need to include relationship information in 100/110 and 700/710 fields using $e and start using some new MARC fields. Here are a few examples.
23Cataloging How will RDA impact school libraries? Vendors will begin providing RDA recordsAutomated library systems may need to be updated to work with new RDA recordsHelpful for school library media specialists to have a basic knowledge about RDA standardsInformation should be entered according to RDA standards when creating original recordsRecords in school library catalogs will include fewer abbreviations and some new terminologyThe new RDA standard will impact cataloging in school libraries in several ways. Vendors soon will begin providing RDA records if they haven’t already, and automated library systems may need to be updated to work with the new RDA records. Although there is very little original cataloging done at the school level, it’s helpful for school library media specialists to have a basic knowledge of cataloging practices since information should be entered according to RDA standards when creating original records for library materials. Also, as a result of the implementation of RDA, the records in library catalogs will include fewer abbreviations and some new terminology.
24“RDA goes beyond earlier cataloging codes in that it provides guidelines on cataloging digital resources and places a stronger emphasis on helping users find, identify, select, and obtain the information they want.”American Library Association, Canadian Library AssociationCILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information ProfessionalsIt is expected that the implementation of the RDA standards will ultimately help library users discover and access library resources more easily. “RDA goes beyond earlier cataloging codes in that it provides guidelines on cataloging digital resources and places a stronger emphasis on helping users find, identify, select, and obtain the information they want.”
25ReferencesAdamich, Tom Resource Description and Access (RDA): The new way to say, AACR2. Knowledge Quest 36, no. 3 (January-February): (accessed February 4, 2013). American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals RDA toolkit: Resource description & access. American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library (accessed March 12, 2012). Anhalt, Joy, and Richard A. Stewart RDA simplified. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 50, no. 1: Burns, Karen MARC records frequently asked questions. Iowa Library Service Districts. (accessed February 1, 2013). Hart, Amy Getting ready for RDA: What you need to know. Library Media Connection 29, no. 2 (October-November): Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 4, 2013). Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA RDA: Resource description and access. (accessed March 8, 2012). Kaplan, Allison G., and Ann Marlow Riedling Catalog it: A guide to cataloging school library materials. Worthington, Ohio; Linworth Books.
26ReferencesRhodes, Chris Chris Oliver on RDA and the future of cataloging. ALA Editions. (December). (accessed March 15, 2012). The Library of Congress Library of Congress Online Catalog. (accessed February 4, 2013). The Library of Congress Resource description and access (RDA): Information and resources in preparation for RDA. (accessed March 20, 2012). Utah State Library Cataloging basics. basics.html (accessed December 4, 2012).
27Image SourcesBooks. [Online image]. (accessed February 5, 2013). Books on Shelves. [Online image]. (accessed February 5, 2013). Card catalog. [Online image]. /photostream/ (accessed March 19, 2012). Cards in catalog drawer. [Online image]. (accessed February 3, 2013). Southern Utah University Sherratt Library online catalog record. [Screen shot]. /cgisirsi/?ps (accessed February 3, 2013). Library of Congress online catalog record. [Screen shot]. (accessed February 4, 2013).