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Sustainable Chemistry and Industrial Ecology T.E. Graedel Yale University.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Chemistry and Industrial Ecology T.E. Graedel Yale University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Chemistry and Industrial Ecology T.E. Graedel Yale University

2 The Chemical Industry Approach to Chemistry and the Sustainable Enterprise: “Responsibility” (Responsible Care, Responsibility Reports, etc.)

3 The Chemical Industry Vision of “Responsible” Inputs Cheap Community interactions Cordial Emissions Low Products Lots and lots

4 GlaxoSmithKline CO 2 Emissions

5 GlaxoSmithKline VOC Emissions

6 The Chemical Industry Vision of “Responsible” Inputs Cheap Community interactions Cordial Emissions Low Products Lots and lots

7 Expanding the Scope of Responsible Action

8 xx MH5M1430N 2 29 Materials Preparation Materials Preparation Virgin Materials Extraction Discard Refurbish? ShipPackage Stages of the Life-Cycle Customer Use Reactant #2 Mfr. Reactant #1 Mfr. Product Mfr.

9 Sludge (treated) Liquid Fertilizer Farms Cement; roads Fish farming Water Fly ash Heat Scrubber Sludge Gas Steam Sulfur A-S Bioteknisk Jordrens Sludge Steam Cooling water Statoil Refinery Lake Tissø Gas Waste water Yeast slurry Recovered nickel and vanadium Kalundborg, DK: Industrial Symbiosis Pathways Asnaes Power Station Pharmaceutical Municipality of Kalundborg District heating Wall-board Plant

10 Responsible Action may not equal Sustainability

11 Sustainability - Meeting the needs of people living on Earth while nurturing and restoring the planet’s life support systems - Board on Sustainable Development, 1999

12 What is it that we want to sustain? For whom? For how long?

13

14 What should be sustained? Environmental scientists: Earth systems Ecologists: Ecological systems Economists: Earth products (ores, minerals) Humanists: Human systems

15 What does the chemical industry want to sustain? The right to operate Feedstocks Suppliers (process equipment, catalysts, etc.) Customers

16 Sustainability Challenge #1 Everything is connected to everything else, so sustainability is a group project

17 From Customer To Customer Various Process And Product Reuse Options METAL MINING METAL SMELTING & REFINING METAL FABRICATION NATURAL GAS EXTRACTION COAL MINING POWER GENERATION PLASTICS FABRICATION PRODUCT ASSEMBLY PACKAGING & SHIPPING RECYCLING INORGANIC MINERAL EXTRACTION INORGANIC CHEMICALS, SAND & GLASS SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS ELECTRONIC FABRICATION PETROLEUM REFINING, PETROCHEMICALS PETROLEUM EXTRACTION EXTRACTIONMATERIAL PROCESSING INTERMEDIATE PRODUCT MFR. IfINAL PRODUCT MFR. PRODUCT DELIVERY The Sector Sequence AGRICULTURE FOOD PROCESSING FOREST PRODUCTS CONSTRUCTION TEXTILES

18 Sustainability Challenge #2 In most cases, the limits we are approaching remain uncertain

19 Lake Powell, CO before and after drought

20 Sustainability Challenge #3 Notwithstanding our difficulties in determining limits, there are increasing signs that our society and the planet is approaching limits

21 Limits to Feedstocks: Crude Oil Price, $/bbl

22 Limits to Emissions: Melting Glaciers

23 The Copper Cycle: Studying Human Use of Resources

24 Year Global Copper Use, (Tg/year)

25 IMPORT/EXPORT ORE ENVIRONMENT PROCESS- ING FABRICA- TION USE WASTE MGT. IMPORT/EXPORT ORE ENVIRONMENT PROCESS- ING FABRICA- TION USE DISCARD MGT. STAF Project © Yale University 2004

26 Data Sources Data Archive Databases - UN Comtrade -... Trade Organizations - ICSG -... Personal Contacts - auto industry -... Periodicals - Minerals yearbook -...

27 Japan Waste Management © STAF Project, Yale University Units: Gg/yr

28 Japan Copper cycle: One Year Stocks and Flows, 1990s © STAF Project, Yale University Units: Gg/yr

29 Zambia’s Copper Cycle: One Year Stocks and Flows, 1994 Units: Gg/yr

30 China’s Copper Cycle: One Year Stocks and Flows, 1994 Units: Gg/yr

31 Computing Resource Stock in Use: Copper in Cities

32 Quantifying stock per capita Step 1: Determine content of major reservoirs Typical auto – 21 kg Cu Typical house – 200 kg Cu

33 Quantifying stock per capita Step 2: Multiply by the number of units in the reservoirs

34 Copper Stock per capita 170 kg Cu35 kg Cu North AmericaBeijing

35 Copper Stock and Copper Need 170 kg Cu North AmericaBeijing Global need 1.7 Pg Cu

36 Limits to Materials: Copper Stock and Copper Supply 170 kg Cu35 kg Cu North AmericaBeijing Global need Global resource 1.7 Pg Cu 1.6 Pg Cu

37 Final Thoughts “Responsible” action is a good thing Sustainability demands a broader perspective, and probably more effort, than responsible action The quantification of sustainability is a work in progress


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