Presentation on theme: "This is produced by chemical breakdown of ATP"— Presentation transcript:
1This is produced by chemical breakdown of ATP UNIT 1 - InformationMuscle contractionRequires energyThis is produced by chemical breakdown of ATPATP ADP + P
2There is a limited supply of ATP in muscle cells UNIT 1 - InformationThere is a limited supply of ATP in muscle cells(it’s usually used up after 3 – 5 seconds of exercise)For exercise to continue, ATP has to be re-generated from ADP using energy obtained from other sources.ADP + P ATPNote: ATP: Adenosine triphosphateADP: Adenosine diphosphateP: Phosphate
3There are 3 sources (energy systems) that the body can use: UNIT 1 - InformationThere are 3 sources (energy systems) that thebody can use:1.ATP/ PC or CP SystemAnaerobic Pathway2. Lactic Acid SystemAerobic Pathway3. Aerobic System
4The CP (Creatine Phosphate) System UNIT 1 - InformationThe CP (Creatine Phosphate) SystemCP – Stored in MusclesCombines with ADP to re-build ATPImmediate source of energyLimited source – lasts up to 10/15 secondsVery important for bursts of explosive speedSuitable for short duration events: 100m, throwing/ jumping athletic events. Phases of team game play.Replenishing stores of CP takes up to 6 minutes of recovery after end of exerciseADP + CP = ATP + CCP: Creatine PhosphateC - Creatine
5UNIT 1 - Information LACTIC ACID SYSTEM Glycogen made from glucose obtained from digested food present in allcells of the body – muscles, liverWhen glycogen breaks down it releases pyruvic acid and energy.This energy is used to re-build ATP from ADP and PThis system is anaerobic – no O2Pyruvic acid is easily removed when O2 is availableWhere there is little O2 it is changed into lactic acidMuscles fail to contract fully - fatigueEnergy from this source lasts longer – up to three minutes before build upof lactic acid prevents further energy productionSuitable for athletes – 200m – 800m. Games players who need tokeep up continuous short bursts of activityTakes about 20 – 60 minutes to remove accumulated lactic acidafter maximal exerciseADP + glycogen = ATP + Pyruvic acid (or pyruvic acid without O2)
6UNIT 1 - Information AEROBIC SYSTEM For longer events – muscles must work aerobically. O2 presentThis system can take the pyruvic acid produced when glycogenbreaks down and turns it into more energy rather than lactic acidSupplies energy to athletes who are working sub-maximallyat 60 – 80% of maximum effort and can take ina constant supply of O2This system provides most of the energy requiredfor physical activity lasting longer than about 3 minutes– long distance activity – runners/ cyclists – Games PlayersADP + Glycogen = ATP + Pyruvic acid
7UNIT 1 - Information AEROBIC SYSTEM Graph to Show – Energy Released over Time% of maximum rate of energy productionATP StoreATP-PC SystemLactic Acid SystemAerobic System2sec10sec1min2hrstime
8Characteristics of the 3 Energy Systems UNIT 1 - InformationCharacteristics of the 3 Energy SystemsEnergy SystemAerobic/ AnaerobicFuel/ Energy SourceBy-productExercise intensityDurationSporting ExamplesNOTESATP/ PCAnaerobicCreatineHigh(Flat Out)10 – 15 SecondsSprinting, athletic field events, weight-lifting.Small muscular stores of ATP and PC are exhausted quickly leading to a rapid decline in immediate energy.Lactic AcidGlycogenGlucosePyruvic Acid/ Lactic AcidHigh IntensityUp to 3 minutes400m800mRacket sports.Lactic acid is a by-product and can cause rapid fatigue.AerobicFat/ glucose mixtureWater/ CO2Low3 minutes onwardsLong distance running/ cycling.This system is limited by availability of O2
9UNIT 1 - InformationCharacteristics of the 3 Energy SystemsThe importance of each source of energy for physical activitydepends on:Type of physical activity.Intensity of physical activity.Duration of physical activity.In many aspects of physical activity the 3 energy systems worktogether at different times to supply the particular type of energyneeded.
10UNIT 1 - InformationOxygen DebtWhen all the ATP required for muscular contraction cannot besupplied AEROBICALLY, the lactic acid system takes over.The side-effect of the body using this system is that there is abuild-up of lactic acid in the muscles and CP stores are depleted– causing fatigue.After strenuous exercise the following have to be completed:O2 stores replaced.ATP replenished.Lactic acid removed.The need for extra O2 after strenuous exercise is known as theO2 DEBT.The body pays off this O2 debt by gulping air into the lungs andpanting. As a result, the lactic acid is turned into CO2 and water.
11Training Energy Systems UNIT 1 - InformationTraining Energy SystemsIndividuals, teachers, coaches need to have a knowledge ofenergy systems to:Identify needs / demands of the physical activity.AerobicAnaerobicAct upon those needstrain correctlyContinuous trainingInterval trainingDifferent methods:FartlekWeight trainingCircuit trainingFlexibility trainingPlyometricsTo help in training effectively we should be able to use MHR (MAXIMUMHEART RATE) ) and VO2 MAX to establish the identified Training Zonesand Training Thresholds.
12Training Energy Systems UNIT 1 - InformationTraining Energy SystemsTo establish TRAINING ZONES the MHR has to be decided:MHR Males = 220 – AGETo gain AEROBIC fitness the exercise should be maintained between 60 and 80% of the established MHR.e.g. 20 year old man220 – 20 = 200AEROBIC TRAINING THRESHOLD = 60% OF 200 = 120 HRANAEROBIC TRAINING THRESHOLD = 80% OF 200 = 160 HRAEROBIC THRESHOLD is the level of exercise where the intensity is sufficient to produce a training effect.ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD is the point where the Aerobic Mechanisms become overloaded and anaerobic metabolism begins to play a major role.The thresholds do vary (marginally).The training zone between 60 and 80% MHR is known as the AEROBIC TRAINING ZONE.Exercising in the zone above the Anaerobic Training Threshold – 80% MHR, means you are in the ANAEROBIC TRAINING ZONE.
13UNIT 1 - InformationGraph to show how the heart rate can be used to establish training zones and thresholds (For a 16 year old boy)BDFACEG(Resting heart rate)A - MHRC – Anaerobic Training ThresholdE – Aerobic Training ThresholdG – Resting Heart RateB – Anaerobic Training ZoneD – Aerobic Training ZoneF – No Improvement Zone60708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220Heart RateBeats per minute(BPM)
14UNIT 1 – Practical Application The energy continuum:Small group/ larger group activity likely to involve different energysystems e.g. a game situation.Discussion in advance to consider different systems and their uses.Recording of performances for analysis and discussion.Partner and group recording of activity and uses being made of the energy systems during the game.Data analysis of findings linked to training methods and sport specific demands.Heart Rate Monitoring:Pupils lead a warm up for a specific activity.Pupils introduce and develop a skill micro session.Heart rate monitoring taking place during each phase of the session.Observation, analysis and discussion of the visible effects/ changes taking place.
15Any physical activity could be used. UNIT 1 – Practical ApplicationExample of energy systems used in a team game:Netball Energy Systems:Consider the type of preparation required for netball.Pupil led warm up and pupil led skill micro session.Review of the energy systems and their effects on performance.Consider sport specific energy requirements linked to nutrition and hydration strategies.Record netball game and analyse in relation to quality of performances, positional responsibilities and the different energy demands being made.Consider the effects of intensity and duration of the activity e.g. sprinting, feint dodge, walking back to the restarting of play, and link to energy systems/ positional responsibilities.Any physical activity could be used.
16UNIT 1 – Practical Application Pupils establishing a training programme based on:Identified needsAerobic / anaerobic pathwaysPrinciples of trainingMonitoring the programmeUsing heart rate to establish training zones and thresholdsHealthy lifestyles PerformanceCorrect Training Methods
17UNIT 1 – Practical Application How Heart Rate can Illustrate the Effect of Physical Activity123470901101306080100120140Recovery PeriodStart of swimEnd of swim5minsHeart Rate (beats per minute)50Normal heart rateStudy the graph and answer the questions that follow.
18UNIT 1 – Practical Application Press to see graph againHow Heart Rate can Illustrate the Effect of Physical ActivityThe graph above illustrates the hear rate of a swimmer during a 100 metre race at the following stages:(i) normal; (ii) start; (iii) halfway; (iv) end of swim; (v) recovery.Use the graph to answer the following questions.By how many beats had the heart rate risen from normal to the end of the swim?By how many beats had the heart rate increased from start to the halfway stage?For how many minutes from the end of the swim did the heart ratecontinue to rise?During which minute was the biggest rise in heart rate?What was the heart rate at the end of the swim?Explain why the heart rate increased before the start of the race.Select one test which measures a component of physical fitness.Explain its purpose and conclusions that can be drawn from the results.
19UNIT 1 – Practical Application Training Zones / Thresholds203040506010012014016090110130150170Age in yearsPulse Rate(beats per minute)180190200TRAINING ZONENO IMPROVEMENT ZONEExercise Heart Rate Upper and Lower Limits Of Training Heart Rate TargetLook at this graph of the recommended minimum and maximumtraining heart rates in beats per minute and answer the questions whichfollow.
20Training Zones / Thresholds UNIT 1 – Practical ApplicationPress to see graph againTraining Zones / ThresholdsWhat is the safe maximum training heart rate for a 20-year old?What is the difference between maximum training and minimum training heart rate for a 35 year old?What is the difference between the maximum training heart rate for a 50 year old and a 30 year old?What is the difference between the maximum training heart rate for a 60 year old and a 25 year old?What is the minimum training heart rate for a 40 year old?Why is it important to work within the training zone for a given group?By working on this graph, pupils can use their own MHR to understand the importance of training correctly.
21UNIT 1 – Practical Application Effects of Lactic Acid Concentration in the Blood10203040506080Time (min)Lactic Acid concentration(per mg per 100cm3 blood)100The effects of strenuous exercise on lactic acid concentration in the bloodLook at this graph and answer the questions which follow.How much did the lactic acid concentration increase during the period of exercise?What was the level of concentration of lactic acid at the 30 minute point?What time after the start of the exercise did the level of concentration of lactic acid read 44 mg per 100cm3?Was the concentration of lactic acid cleared at the 60 minute point?What was the level of concentration of lactic acid at the15 minute point?What causes the increase of concentration of lactic acid in the blood?
22Cardiovascular system Cardio-respiratory system UNIT 1 - LinksCardiovascular systemCardio-respiratory systemIntensity/ duration of exerciseShort term effects of exercise on the systems of the bodyLong term effects of exercise on the systems if the bodyPrinciples of trainingMethods of trainingHeart rate/ VO2Information/DiscussionPractical Application
23Characteristics of energy systems UNIT 1 - ActivityDuring the course of a team game, players would use all three energy systems.Name a team and describe specific situations in which each of the energy systems would be used.Below is a table showing some characteristics of three energy systems used in sporting activity.Tick () the energy system which is appropriate for each characteristic.Characteristics of energy systemsATP-PCLactic AcidAerobicUsed mainly in very high intensity, short duration activities of up to 10 seconds and in the very early stages of exercise.Used mainly in very high intensity exerciseof between 10 seconds and 3 minutes in duration.Used mainly during prolonged, low intensity of exercise.
24UNIT 1 - ActivityIdentify one factor which can determine the main energy system used in any sporting activity.Complete the table summarising the energy systems below:Energy systemAerobic or AnaerobicWrite the chemical equation summarising this processAny by-productsHow long can we use it for?Creatine Phosphate (CP)Lactic AcidAerobic
25UNIT 1 - ActivityStudy the images below. Suggest which energy system each athlete would predominantly use during performance and why.ABCLong JumperMarathon Runner400m SprinterDiagramEnergy systemReasonABCSelect one energy system and explain how ATP is recreated using this system. You may choose to use a diagram to assist your explanation.
26UNIT 1 - ActivityThe table below shows a number of activities that are common to many games. For each activity identify the main energy system that would be used.ACTIVITYMAIN ENERGY SYSTEMJoggingKickingSprintingCounter attackingThe energy system used for any sporting activity depends on which two factors?How could an understanding of the energy systems help a teacher/ coach of a sports team train his/ her players?
27UNIT 1 - Activity“During maximum effort, such as sprinting, muscles need a lot of energy quickly but oxygen (O2) cannot reach the muscles fast enough”.Which energy system is best used to provide the necessary fuel for such an activity?Explain the term oxygen debt?The following table lists a number of activities that a hockey player may perform in a game. Decide which energy system would be used to provide energy for them.Practical ApplicationActivityEnergy System usedTaking on a defender over 10 metres.Jogging back after an attack.Counter attacking immediately after sprinting back 60m to defend.A keeper diving for the ball then returning to their feet.An attacker waiting on the half way line while his team defends a short corner.A defender holding a defensive position when his team are attacking.Closing down an attacker and tackling.Losing a defender with a change of pace.
28UNIT 1 - Activity“During maximum effort, such as sprinting, muscles need a lot of energy quickly but oxygen (O2) cannot reach the muscles fast enough”.Which energy system is best used to provide the necessary fuel for such an activity?ActivityAerobic / AnaerobicLong distance runningMarathon runningLong jumpA gymnastics vaultA 50m sprint swimJavelin throwAerobicAnaerobicAnaerobicAerobicClick box once for Anaerobic, twice for AerobicAerobicAnaerobicAnaerobicAerobicAnaerobicAerobicAerobicAnaerobicExplain why many sporting activities can be described as both Aerobic and Anaerobic.What is the advantage to a team game player of having a high VO2 Max?
29UNIT 1 - Activity Explain what is meant by anaerobic threshold. Which energy systems would be the main provider of energy in a:smash in Tennis,60 second rally in Tennis.(i) Explain the meaning of the term VO2 Max.(ii) Give two benefits for a sportsperson of having a high VO2 max.(i) Give a sporting example of anaerobic activity.(ii) Why is lactic acid produced during anaerobic activity?What happens to an athlete’s performance as lactic acid builds up?
30UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph shows the rate of lactic acid removal after exercise.20406080100120140160Recovery Time (minutes)% Blood Lactic Acid RemovedAB(i) Which athlete recovered first?(ii) How long did it take the other athlete to remove all lactic acid from his body?(iii) How much lactic acid had been removed by A after 1 hour’s recovery?(iv) How much lactic acid had been removed by B after 1 hour’s recovery?(v) What is the difference in full recovery time between the two athletes?(vi) There is evidence on the graph to suggest why one athlete recovered quickerthan the other during recovery time. Explain the evidence.
31UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph below shows the heart rate of a 15 year old athlete during a training session.60123164205510152025303540Warm up 5 minutesHeart rate (bpm)AExercise – 30 minutesCool down 5 minutesXYZWhat heart rate is indicated at 205 bpm?What threshold is identified at Z?What is the name given to training zone A?What type of sporting activity could the athlete be training for?What physical fitness component is being developed in this session?
32UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph below shows the heart rates (X,Y and Z) for three different performers.50100150200250TimeHeart rate (bpm)XYZWhich heart rate would be appropriate for(i) a 100 metre sprinter and(ii) a games player?Give reasons for your answers.
33UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph below shows the heart rate of two 16 year old athletes when training at the same intensity.60120180Heart rate (bpm)90Time (minutes)30Athlete AAthlete BWhich athlete is the fitter, A or B?Using information from the graph to help you, give two reasons for your answer.
34UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph below shows the heart rate of a sportsperson recorded during a training session.Heart rate20406080100120140160180200MHRTraining SessionWhat happens to the sportsperson’s heart rate during the training session?What causes the heart rate to change in this way?What type of sporting activity do you think the sportsperson is training for?Explain your answer.
35UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph below shows the heart rate of an eighteen-year-old badminton player during a game.510152050100150200Time (min)Heart RateBeats per minute(BPM)250Give two pieces if evidence to suggest that this player is a fit competitor.Calculate the player’s maximum heart rate (MHR).What evidence is there to suggest that this player worked both aerobically and anaerobically during the game?
36UNIT 1 - ActivityThe graph below shows how a sixteen-year-old sportsperson can use heart rate to work out how hard to train.Heart rate and training of a sixteen-year-old sportsperson:What heart rate is indicated at 204 bpm (A)?What threshold is indicated at 163 bpm (C)?What threshold is indicated at 122 bpm (E)?In which training zone does lactic acid build up quickly? Is it B, D or F?How does lactic acid build up affect training time and recovery time?Which training zone is important for improving aerobic fitness? Is it B, D or F?Explain why training zone F has little effect on aerobic fitness?
37UNIT 1 – Key Facts/Glossary Muscle contractionATPEnergy Needed(CP System – Lactic Acid System) – Aerobic SystemAnaerobic PathwayAerobic PathwayNeeds of individual – physical activity – health/ competitive?Intensity/ duration of physical activityOxygen debt – lactic acid – fatigue – performanceTraining correctly to meet identified needs/ demandsHeart rate – links with VO2 – establishing – training zones and thresholds