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Observing Dark Energy SDSS, DES, WFMOS teams

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Understanding Dark Energy No compelling theory, must be observational driven We can make progress on questions: Is DE just a cosmological constant (w(z)=-1)? (Make better observations and push to higher z) Is DE a new form of matter (with negative effective pressure) or a breakdown of GR? (Study DE using different probes) But there are only two broad avenues: Geometrical tests (SN, BAO) Growth of structure (ISW)

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Massive Surveys Need large surveys of the Universe to measure DE accurately SDSS & AS2 ISW SDSS SN Survey (Smith’s talk) Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) Dark Energy Survey (DES) The power of photo-z’s (Lahav’s talk) WFMOS by Gemini/Subaru The power of spectroscopy

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SDSS www.sdss.org DR5: Million spectra, 8000 sq degs Extension (2005-2008): Legacy, SNe, Galaxy SDSS www.sdss.org.uk/dr5

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Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect Dark Energy effects the rate of growth of structure in Universe Poisson equation with dark energy: In a flat, matter-dominated universe (CMB tells us this), then density fluctuations grow as: Therefore, curvature or DE gives a change in the gravitational potential

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Experimental Set-up Nolta et al, Boughn & Crittenden, Myers et al, Afshordi et al, Fosalba et al., Gaztanaga et al., Rassat et al.

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WMAP-SDSS Correlation No signal in a flat, matter-dominated Universe Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) WMAP W band

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ISW Detected Update of the Scranton et al. (2003) paper 6300 sq degrees Achromatic 5 detection

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Giannantonio et al. (2006) Cross-correlation of WMAP3 and SDSS quasars Detection of DE at z>1 0.075< m <0.45 -1.15

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Evolution of DE Consistent with w=- 1 Rules out models D (z=1.5) > 0.5

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Modified Gravity LCDM DGP Song et al. (2006)

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DES+VISTA Give photo-z ’ s to z~2 with < 0.1 ISW will be competitive with SNAP for non- constant w (Pogosian et al. 2005)

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SDSS SN Survey NS Use the SDSS 2.5m telescope September 1 - November 30 of 2005-2007 Scan 300 square degrees of the sky every 2 days “Stripe82” (UKIDSS data) WHT/NTT leading spectroscopic follow-up (Smith talk)

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DES SN Survey Sullivan et al. (2003) SN surveys are now systematics limited Focus on elliptical hosts as less dust and no SNII DES will survey 9deg 2 to z=1 detecting ~300 ellipticals Ia’s in 5 years Target clusters (boost of a few)

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Baryon Acoustic Oscillations SDSS DR5 520k galaxies WMAP3 m =0.24 best fit WMAP model Percival et al. 2006 Miller et al. 2001, Percival et al. 2001, Tegmark et al. 2001, Cole et al. 2005, Eisenstein et al. 2005, Hutsei 2006, Blake et al. 2006, Padmanabhan et al. 2006

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Cosmological Constraints Sullivan et al. (2003) Standard ruler (flat,h=0.73, b =0.17) Best fit m =0.26 99.74% detection h=0.72±0.08 HST m =0.256 +0.049 -0.029 m h 2 WMAP3 m =0.256 +0.019 -0.023 m 0.275 h WMAP3 m =0.256 +0.029 -0.024 Percival et al. (2006)

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WFMOS Proposed MOS on Subaru via an international collaboration of Gemini and Japanese astronomers 1.5deg FOV with 4500 fibres feeding 10 low-res spectrographs and 1 high-res spectrograph ~20000 spectra a night (2dfGRS at z~1 in 10 nights) DE science, Galactic archeology, galaxy formation studies and lots of ancillary science from database

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WFMOS Surveys Parkinson et al. (2007) Emission-line galaxies 5600 deg 2 at z=1.1 (dz=0.3) 150 deg 2 at z=3.15 (dz=0.2) FoM an order of magnitude larger than SDSS (dw=4%) Optimum is broadly peaked and insensitive to other surveys Now investigating curvature and other w(z) models (Clarkson et al. 2007) Optimize instrument parameters

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After SDSSII Measure distance to 1% at z=0.35 and z=0.6 10000 deg 2 with 1.5m LRGs to z=0.8 (median z= 0.5) 100k quasars as well Starting 2009 7 times more volume Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) 2SLAQ

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Conclusions ISW has measured density of DE at z>1; looks like a cosmological constant SDSS SN Survey will deliver >500 Ia’s this year. SN surveys are now systematics dominated (DES will exploit Ia’s in elliptical galaxies) SDSS BAO measures are robust and deliver 10% measurements on cosmological parameters WFMOS and AS2 will move BAO to 1% level Strong degeneracy with curvature; need many distance scale measures as function of redshift

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2057 (April 1 st 2007)

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